Abstract:
Perelman has given a gradient formulation for the Ricci flow, introducing an ``entropy function'' which increases monotonically along the flow.We pursue a thermodynamic analogy and apply Ricci flow ideas to general relativity. We investigate whether Perelman's entropy is related to (Bekenstein-Hawking)geometric entropy as familiar from black hole thermodynamics. From a study of the fixed points of the flow we conclude that Perelman entropy is not connected to geometric entropy. However, we notice that there is a very similar flow which DOES appear to be connected to geometric entropy. The new flow may find applications in black hole physics suggesting for instance, new approaches to the Penrose inequality.

Abstract:
Using a smooth triangulation and a Riemannian metric on a compact, connected, closed manifold M of dimension n we have got that every such M can be represented as a union of a n-dimensional cell and a connected union K of some subsimplexes of the triangulation. A sufficiently small closed neighborhood of K is called a geometric black hole. Any smooth tensor field T (or other structure) can be deformed into a continuous and sectionally smooth tensor field T1 where T1 has a very simple construction out of the black hole.

Abstract:
We model massive dark objects at centers of many galaxies as Schwarzschild black hole lenses and study gravitational lensing by them in detail. We show that the ratio of mass of a Schwarzschild lens to the differential time delay between outermost two relativistic images (both of them either on the primary or on the secondary image side) is extremely insensitive to changes in the angular source position as well as the lens-source and lens-observer distances. Therefore, this ratio can be used to obtain very accurate values for masses of black holes at centers of galaxies. Similarly, angular separations between any two relativistic images are also extremely insensitive to changes in the angular source position and the lens-source distance. Therefore, with the known value of mass of a black hole, angular separation between two relativistic images would give a very accurate result for the distance of the black hole. Accuracies in determination of masses and distances of black holes would however depend on accuracies in measurements of differential time delays and angular separations between images. Deflection angles of primary and secondary images as well as effective deflection angles of relativistic images on the secondary image side are always positive. However, the effective deflection angles of relativistic images on the primary image side may be positive, zero, or negative depending on the value of angular source position and the ratio of mass of the lens to its distance. We show that effective deflection angles of relativistic images play significant role in analyzing and understanding strong gravitational field lensing.

Extreme Black Holesis an important theoretical laboratory for exploring the nature of entropy. We suggest that this unusual nature of the extremal limit could explain the entropy of extremal Kerr black holes. The time-independence of the extremal black hole, the zero surface gravity, the zero entropy and the absence of a bifurcate Killing horizon are all related properties that define and reduce to one single unique feature of the extremal Kerr spacetime. We suggest the presence of a true geometric discontinuity as the underlying cause of a vanishing entropy.

Abstract:
We use the extension of the Minimal Geometric Deformation approach, recently developed to investigate the exterior of a self-gravitating system in the Braneworld, to identified a master solution for the deformation undergone by the radial metric component when time deformations are produced by bulk gravitons. A specific form for the temporal deformation is used to generate a new exterior solution with a tidal charge $Q$. The main feature of this solution is the presence of higher-order terms in the tidal charge, thus generalizing the well known tidally charged solution. The horizon of the black hole lies inside the Schwarzschild radius, $h

Abstract:
Considering a nonlinear charged black hole as a thermodynamics system, we study the geometric description of its phase transitions. Using the formalism of geometrothermodynamics we show that the geometry of the space of thermodynamic equilibrium states of this kind of black holes is related with information about thermodynamic interaction, critical points and phase transitions structure. Our results indicate that the equilibrium manifold of this black hole is curved and that curvature singularities appear exactly at those places where first and second order phase transitions occur.

Abstract:
In the space of thermodynamic equilibrium states we introduce a Legendre invariant metric which contains all the information about the thermodynamics of black holes. The curvature of this thermodynamic metric becomes singular at those points where, according to the analysis of the heat capacities, phase transitions occur. This result is valid for the Kerr-Newman black hole and all its special cases and, therefore, provides a unified description of black hole phase transitions in terms of curvature singularities.

Abstract:
We study the Hawking effect in terms of the geometric phase acquired by a two-level atom as a result of coupling to vacuum fluctuations outside a Schwarzschild black hole in a gedanken experiment. We treat the atom in interaction with a bath of fluctuating quantized massless scalar fields as an open quantum system, whose dynamics is governed by a master equation obtained by tracing over the field degrees of freedom. The nonunitary effects of this system are examined by analyzing the geometric phase for the Boulware, Unruh and Hartle-Hawking vacua respectively. We find, for all the three cases, that the geometric phase of the atom turns out to be affected by the space-time curvature which backscatters the vacuum field modes. In both the Unruh and Hartle-Hawking vacua, the geometric phase exhibits similar behaviors as if there were thermal radiation at the Hawking temperature from the black hole. So, a measurement of the change of the geometric phase as opposed to that in a flat space-time can in principle reveal the existence of the Hawking radiation.

Abstract:
Black hole perturbation theory is typically studied on time surfaces that extend between the bifurcation sphere and spatial infinity. From a physical point of view, however, it may be favorable to employ time surfaces that extend between the future event horizon and future null infinity. This framework resolves problems regarding the representation of quasinormal mode eigenfunctions and the construction of short-ranged potentials for the perturbation equations in frequency domain.

Abstract:
It has long been known that null unstable geodesics are related to the characteristic modes of black holes-- the so called quasinormal resonances. The basic idea is to interpret the free oscillations of a black hole in the eikonal limit in terms of null particles trapped at the unstable circular orbit and slowly leaking out. The real part of the complex quasinormal resonances is related to the angular velocity at the unstable null geodesic. The imaginary part of the resonances is related to the instability timescale (or the inverse Lyapunov exponent) of the orbit. While this geometric-optics description of the black-hole quasinormal resonances in terms of perturbed null {\it rays} is very appealing and intuitive, it is still highly important to verify the validity of this approach by directly analyzing the Teukolsky wave equation which governs the dynamics of perturbation {\it waves} in the black-hole spacetime. This is the main goal of the present paper. We first use the geometric-optics technique of perturbing a bundle of unstable null rays to calculate the resonances of near-extremal Kerr black holes in the eikonal approximation. We then directly solve the Teukolsky wave equation (supplemented by the appropriate physical boundary conditions) and show that the resultant quasinormal spectrum obtained directly from the wave analysis is in accord with the spectrum obtained from the geometric-optics approximation of perturbed null rays.