Abstract:
Purpose: The prediction of the optimal bead geometry is an important aspect in robotic welding process. Therefore, the mathematical models that predict and control the bead geometry require to be developed. This paper focuses on investigation of the development of the simple and accuracy interaction model for prediction of bead geometry for lab joint in robotic Gas Metal Arc (GMA) welding process.Design/methodology/approach: The sequent experiment based on full factorial design has been conducted with two levels of five process parameters to obtain bead geometry using a GMA welding process. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) has efficiently been used for identifying the significance of main and interaction effects of process parameters. General linear model and regression analysis has been employed as a guide to achieve the linear, curvilinear and interaction models. The fitting and the prediction of bead geometry given by these models were also carried out. Graphic results display the effects of process parameter and interaction effects on bead geometry.Findings: The fitting and the prediction capabilities of interaction models are reliable than the linear and curlinear models and it was found that welding voltage, arc current, welding speed and 2-way interaction CTWD welding angle have the large significant effects on bead geometry.Research limitations/implications: The these models developed are extended to shielding gas composition, weld joint position, polarity and many other parameters which are not included in this research in order to establish a closed loop feedback control system to minimize possible errors from uncontrolled variations.Practical implications: The developed models apply real-time control for bead geometry in GMA welding process and perform the Design of Experiments (DOE) analysis steps in order to solve optimisation problems in GMA welding process.Originality/value: The interaction factors, welding voltage arc current, CTWD welding angle, also imposes a significant effect on bead geometry. With the experimental data of this study, the interaction models have a more reliable fitting and better predicting than that of linear and curvilinear models.

Abstract:
We study for the first time the effect of the geometry of quantum wire networks on their nonlinear optical properties and show that for some geometries, the first hyperpolarizability is largely enhanced and the second hyperpolarizability is always negative or zero. We use a one-electron model with tight transverse confinement. In the limit of infinite transverse confinement, the transverse wavefunctions drop out of the hyperpolarizabilities, but their residual effects are essential to include in the sum rules. The effects of geometry are manifested in the projections of the transition moments of each wire segment onto the 2-D lab frame. Numerical optimization of the geometry of a loop leads to hyperpolarizabilities that rival the best chromophores. We suggest that a combination of geometry and quantum-confinement effects can lead to systems with ultralarge nonlinear response.

Abstract:
The purpose of this contribution is to give an introduction to quantum geometry and loop quantum gravity for a wide audience of both physicists and mathematicians. From a physical point of view the emphasis will be on conceptual issues concerning the relationship of the formalism with other more traditional approaches inspired in the treatment of the fundamental interactions in the standard model. Mathematically I will pay special attention to functional analytic issues, the construction of the relevant Hilbert spaces and the definition and properties of geometric operators: areas and volumes.

Abstract:
Quantum geometry, i.e., the quantum theory of intrinsic and extrinsic spatial geometry, is a cornerstone of loop quantum gravity. Recently, there have been many new ideas in this field, and I will review some of them. In particular, after a brief description of the main structures and results of quantum geometry, I review a new description of the quantized geometry in terms of polyhedra, new results on the volume operator, and a way to incorporate a classical background metric into the quantum description. Finally I describe a new type of exponentiated flux operator, and its application to Chern-Simons theory and black holes.

Abstract:
After a brief introduction, basic ideas of the quantum Riemannian geometry underlying loop quantum gravity are summarized. To illustrate physical ramifications of quantum geometry, the framework is then applied to homogeneous isotropic cosmology. Quantum geometry effects are shown to replace the big bang by a big bounce. Thus, quantum physics does not stop at the big-bang singularity. Rather there is a pre-big-bang branch joined to the current post-big-bang branch by a `quantum bridge'. Furthermore, thanks to the background independence of loop quantum gravity, evolution is deterministic across the bridge.

Abstract:
We investigate the possibility that a background independent quantum theory of gravity is not a theory of quantum geometry. We provide a way for global spacetime symmetries to emerge from a background independent theory without geometry. In this, we use a quantum information theoretic formulation of quantum gravity and the method of noiseless subsystems in quantum error correction. This is also a method that can extract particles from a quantum geometric theory such as a spin foam model.

Abstract:
Quantum computers hold great promise, but it remains a challenge to find efficient quantum circuits that solve interesting computational problems. We show that finding optimal quantum circuits is essentially equivalent to finding the shortest path between two points in a certain curved geometry. By recasting the problem of finding quantum circuits as a geometric problem, we open up the possibility of using the mathematical techniques of Riemannian geometry to suggest new quantum algorithms, or to prove limitations on the power of quantum computers.

Abstract:
We present a new geometry of spacetime where events may be positive dimensional. This geometry is obtained by applying the identity of indiscernibles, which is a fundamental principle of quantum statistics, to time. Quantum nonlocality arises as a natural consequence of this geometry. We also examine the ontology of the wavefunction in this framework. In particular, we show how entanglement swapping in spacetime invalidates the preparation assumption of the PBR theorem.

Abstract:
An algebraic formulation of Riemannian geometry on quantum spaces is presented, where Riemannian metric, distance, Laplacian, connection, and curvature have their counterparts. This description is also extended to complex manifolds. Examples include the quantum sphere, the complex quantum projective spaces and the two-sheeted space.