Abstract:
Exclusive measurements of the $pp \to pp\pi^0\pi^0$ reaction have been performed at CELSIUS/WASA at energies from threshold up to $T_p$ = 1.3 GeV. Total and differential cross sections have been obtained. Here we concentrate on energies $T_p \ge$ 1 GeV, where the $\Delta\Delta$ excitation becomes the leading process. No evidence is found for a significant ABC effect beyond that given by the conventional $t$-channel $\Delta\Delta$ excitation. This holds also for the double-pionic fusion to the quasibound $^2$He. The data are compared to model predictions, which are based on both pion and $\rho$ exchange. Total and differential cross sections are at variance with these predictions and call for a profound modification of the $\rho$-exchange. A phenomenological modification allowing only a small $\rho$ exchange contribution leads to a quantitative description of the data.

Abstract:
We study the leading electroweak corrections in the precision measurement of the strange form factors. Specifically, we calculate the two-boson-exchange (TBE), two-photon-exchange (TPE) plus $\gamma Z$-exchange ($\gamma Z$E), corrections with $\Delta(1232)$ excitation to the parity-violating asymmetry of the elastic electron-proton scattering. The interplay between nucleon and $\Delta$ contributions is found to depend strongly on the kinematics, as $\delta_\Delta$ begins as negligible at backward angles but becomes very large and negative and dominant at forward angles, while $\delta_N$ always stays positive and decreases monotonically with increasing $\epsilon$. The total TBE corrections to the extracted values of $G^{s}_{E}+\beta G^{s}_{M}$ in recent experiments of HAPPEX and G0 are, depending on kinematics, found to be large and range between 13% to -75% but small in the case of A4 experiments.

Abstract:
The recoil proton polarization in the $\pi^0$ production off the proton with longitudinally polarized electron beam has been studied as a means to measure quadrupole components in the N to $\Delta$ transition. On top of the $\Delta$ resonance a high sensitivity to a possible Coulomb quadrupole excitation is found in parallel kinematics. The ratio of $S_{1+}/M_{1+}$ multipole amplitudes can be determined from the ratio of the two in-scattering-plane recoil proton polarization components. Avoiding the absolute measurement of the polarizations, such a ratio allows small experimental uncertainties. Furthermore, the electron helicity independent proton polarization component enables the characterization of resonant and non-resonant pieces.

Abstract:
We calculate differential cross sections and the spin transfer coefficient $D_{nn}$ in the $\vec{p}+\alpha \to \vec{p}+\alpha+\pi^0$ reaction for proton bombarding energies from 1 to 10 GeV and $\pi^0 - p$ invariant masses spanning the region of the N$^*$(1440) Roper resonance. Two processes -- $\Delta$ excitation in the $\alpha$-particle and Roper excitation in the proton -- are included in an effective reaction model which was shown previously to reproduce existing inclusive spectra. The present calculations demonstrate that these two contributions can be clearly distinguished via $D_{nn}$, even under kinematic conditions where cross sections alone exhibit no clear peak structure due to the excitation of the Roper.

Abstract:
The proton emission induced by polarized photons is studied in the energy range above the giant resonance region and below the pion emission threshold. Results for the 12C, 16O and 40Ca nuclei are presented. The sensitivity of various observables to final state interaction, meson exchange currents and short range correlations is analyzed. We found relevant effects due to the virtual excitation of the $\Delta$ resonance.

Abstract:
We review the description of the lowest-energy nucleon excitation -- the $\Delta$(1232)-resonance. Much of the recent experimental effort has been focused on the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-$\Delta$ transition by means of electromagnetic probes. We confront the results of these measuremnts with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-$N_c$ relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. We also discuss the link of the nucleon-to-$\Delta$ form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Some of the theoretical approaches are reviewed in detail, in particular, recent dynamical and unitary-isobar models of pion electroproduction, which are extensively used in the interpretation of experiments. Also, the novel extension of chiral EFTs to the energy domain of the $\Delta$-resonance is described in detail. The two-photon exchange effects in the electroexcitation of the $\De$-resonance are addressed here as well.

Abstract:
We study the Roper excitation in the $(\alpha,\alpha')$ reaction. We consider all processes which may be relevant in the Roper excitation region, namely, Roper excitation in the target, Roper excitation in the projectile, and double $\Delta$ excitation processes. The theoretical investigation shows that the Roper excitation in the proton target mediated by an isoscalar exchange is the dominant mechanism in the process. We determine an effective isoscalar interaction by means of which the experimental cross section is well reproduced. This should be useful to make predictions in related reactions and is a first step to construct eventually a microscopic $NN \rightarrow NN^*$ transition potential, for which the present reaction does not offer enough information.

Abstract:
We review our theoretical approach to neutral current photon emission on nucleons and nuclei in the few-GeV energy region, relevant for neutrino oscillation experiments. These reactions are dominated by the weak excitation of the $\Delta(1232)$ resonance but there are also important non-resonant contributions. We have also included terms mediated by nucleon excitations from the second resonance region. On nuclei, Pauli blocking, Fermi motion and the in-medium $\Delta$ resonance broadening have been taken into account for both incoherent and coherent reaction channels. With this model, the number and distributions of photon events at the MiniBooNE and T2K experiments have been obtained. We have also compared to the NOMAD upper limit at higher energies. The implications of our findings and future perspectives are discussed.

Abstract:
The $\Delta$-excitation in $\overline{p}d$ annihilation at rest was studied. The annihilation amplitude from the statistical model and the $\pi N$ amplitude from the resonance model were adopted in our calculations. We analyze the invariant mass of the $\pi^+p$ and $\pi^-p$ systems selecting the protons with momenta above 400 MeV/c and with respect to the different final reaction channels. Our model reproduces reasonably the experimental data.

Abstract:
We measured angular distributions of differential cross section, beam analyzing power, and recoil polarization for neutral pion electroproduction at Q^2 = 1.0 (GeV/c)^2 in 10 bins of W across the Delta resonance. A total of 16 independent response functions were extracted, of which 12 were observed for the first time. Comparisons with recent model calculations show that response functions governed by real parts of interference products are determined relatively well near 1.232 GeV, but variations among models is large for response functions governed by imaginary parts and for both increases rapidly with W. We performed a nearly model-independent multipole analysis that adjusts complex multipoles with high partial waves constrained by baseline models. Parabolic fits to the W dependence of the multipole analysis around the Delta mass gives values for SMR = (-6.61 +/- 0.18)% and EMR = (-2.87 +/- 0.19)% that are distinctly larger than those from Legendre analysis of the same data. Similarly, the multipole analysis gives Re(S0+/M1+) = (+7.1 +/- 0.8)% at W=1.232 GeV, consistent with recent models, while the traditional Legendre analysis gives the opposite sign because its truncation errors are quite severe. Finally, using a unitary isobar model (UIM), we find that excitation of the Roper resonance is dominantly longitudinal with S1/2 = (0.05 +/- 0.01) GeV^(-1/2) at Q^2=1. The ReS0+ and ReE0+ multipoles favor pseudovector coupling over pseudoscalar coupling or a recently proposed mixed-coupling scheme, but the UIM does not reproduce the imaginary parts of 0+ multipoles well.