Abstract:
We study the singular values of the Dirac operator in dense QCD-like theories at zero temperature. The Dirac singular values are real and nonnegative at any nonzero quark density. The scale of their spectrum is set by the diquark condensate, in contrast to the complex Dirac eigenvalues whose scale is set by the chiral condensate at low density and by the BCS gap at high density. We identify three different low-energy effective theories with diquark sources applicable at low, intermediate, and high density, together with their overlapping domains of validity. We derive a number of exact formulas for the Dirac singular values, including Banks-Casher-type relations for the diquark condensate, Smilga-Stern-type relations for the slope of the singular value density, and Leutwyler-Smilga-type sum rules for the inverse singular values. We construct random matrix theories and determine the form of the microscopic spectral correlation functions of the singular values for all nonzero quark densities. We also derive a rigorous index theorem for non-Hermitian Dirac operators. Our results can in principle be tested in lattice simulations.

Abstract:
The microscopic spectral density of the QCD Dirac operator at nonzero baryon chemical potential for an arbitrary number of quark flavors was derived recently from a random matrix model with the global symmetries of QCD. In this paper we show that these results and extensions thereof can be obtained from the replica limit of a Toda lattice equation. This naturally leads to a factorized form into bosonic and fermionic QCD-like partition functions. In the microscopic limit these partition functions are given by the static limit of a chiral Lagrangian that follows from the symmetry breaking pattern. In particular, we elucidate the role of the singularity of the bosonic partition function in the orthogonal polynomials approach. A detailed discussion of the spectral density for one and two flavors is given.

Abstract:
Recently, a non-Hermitian chiral random matrix model was proposed to describe the eigenvalues of the QCD Dirac operator at nonzero chemical potential. This matrix model can be constructed from QCD by mapping it to an equivalent matrix model which has the same symmetries as QCD with chemical potential. Its microscopic spectral correlations are conjectured to be identical to those of the QCD Dirac operator. We investigate this conjecture by comparing large ensembles of Dirac eigenvalues in quenched SU(3) lattice QCD at nonzero chemical potential to the analytical predictions of the matrix model. Excellent agreement is found in the two regimes of weak and strong non-Hermiticity, for several different lattice volumes.

Abstract:
The overlap Dirac operator at nonzero quark chemical potential involves the computation of the sign function of a non-Hermitian matrix. In this talk we present iterative Krylov subspace approximations, with deflation of critical eigenvalues, which we developed to compute the operator on large lattices. We compare the accuracy and efficiency of two alternative approximations based on the Arnoldi and on the two-sided Lanczos method. The short recurrences used in the latter method make it faster and more effective for realistic lattice simulations.

Abstract:
The overlap Dirac operator at nonzero quark chemical potential involves the computation of the sign function of a non-Hermitian matrix. In this talk we present an iterative method, first proposed by us in Ref. [1], which allows for an efficient computation of the operator, even on large lattices. The starting point is a Krylov subspace approximation, based on the Arnoldi algorithm, for the evaluation of a generic matrix function. The efficiency of this method is spoiled when the matrix has eigenvalues close to a function discontinuity. To cure this, a small number of critical eigenvectors are added to the Krylov subspace, and two different deflation schemes are proposed in this augmented subspace. The ensuing method is then applied to the sign function of the overlap Dirac operator, for two different lattice sizes. The sign function has a discontinuity along the imaginary axis, and the numerical results show how deflation dramatically improves the efficiency of the method.

Abstract:
We show how to introduce a quark chemical potential in the overlap Dirac operator. The resulting operator satisfies a Ginsparg-Wilson relation and has exact zero modes. It is no longer gamma_5-hermitian, but its nonreal eigenvalues still occur in pairs. We compute the spectral density of the operator on the lattice and show that, for small eigenvalues, the data agree with analytical predictions of nonhermitian chiral random matrix theory for both trivial and nontrivial topology.

Abstract:
In this talk we present the results published recently in Ref. [1], where we showed how to introduce a quark chemical potential in the overlap Dirac operator. The resulting operator satisfies a Ginsparg-Wilson relation and has exact zero modes. It is no longer gamma_5-Hermitian, but its nonreal eigenvalues still occur in pairs. We compute the spectral density of the operator on the lattice and show that, for small eigenvalues, the data agree with analytical predictions of non-Hermitian chiral random matrix theory for both trivial and nontrivial topology. We also explain an observed change in the number of zero modes as a function of chemical potential.

Abstract:
We investigate the eigenvalue spectrum of the staggered Dirac matrix in SU(3) and U(1) gauge theory as well as in full QCD with two colors and finite chemical potential. Along the strong-coupling axis up to the phase transition, the low-lying Dirac spectrum of these quantum field theories is well described by random matrix theory and exhibits universal behavior. Related results for gauge theories with minimal coupling are discussed in the chirally symmetric phase and no universality is seen for the microscopic spectral densities.

Abstract:
The relation between the spectral density of the QCD Dirac operator at nonzero baryon chemical potential and the chiral condensate is investigated. We use the analytical result for the eigenvalue density in the microscopic regime which shows oscillations with a period that scales as 1/V and an amplitude that diverges exponentially with the volume $V=L^4$. We find that the discontinuity of the chiral condensate is due to the whole oscillating region rather than to an accumulation of eigenvalues at the origin. These results also extend beyond the microscopic regime to chemical potentials $\mu \sim 1/L$.

Abstract:
Starting from the chiral Lagrangian for Wilson fermions at nonzero lattice spacing we have obtained compact expressions for all spectral correlation functions of the Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator in the $\epsilon$-domain of QCD with dynamical quarks. We have also obtained the distribution of the chiralities over the real eigenvalues of the Wilson Dirac operator for any number of flavors. All results have been derived for a fixed index of the Dirac operator. An important effect of dynamical quarks is that they completely suppress the inverse square root singularity in the spectral density of the Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator. The analytical results are given in terms of an integral over a diffusion kernel for which the square of the lattice spacing plays the role of time. This approach greatly simplifies the expressions which we here reduce to the evaluation of two-dimensional integrals.