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 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.17943.x Abstract: We discuss the characteristics of known extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Galaxy using the Stellar Abundances for Galactic Archaeology (SAGA) database (Suda et al. 2008, PASJ, 60, 1159).The analyses of carbon-enhanced stars in our sample suggest that the nucleosynthesis in AGB stars can contribute to the carbon enrichment in a different way depending on whether the metallicity is above or below [Fe/H] ~ -2.5, which is consistent with the current models of stellar evolution at low metallicity. We find the transition of the initial mass function at [Fe/H] ~ -2 in the viewpoint of the distribution of carbon abundance and the frequency of carbon-enhanced stars. For observed EMP stars, we confirmed that some, not all, of observed stars might have undergone at least two types of extra mixing to change their surface abundances. One is to deplete the lithium abundance during the early phase of red giant branch. Another is to decrease the C/N ratio by one order of magnitude during the red giant branch phase. Observed small scatters of abundances for alpha-elements and iron-group elements suggest that the chemical enrichment of our Galaxy takes place in a well-mixed interstellar medium. We find that the abundance trends of alpha-elements are highly correlated with each other, while the abundances of iron-group elements are subject to different slopes relative to the iron abundance. This implies that the supernova yields of alpha-elements are almost independent of mass and metallicity, while those of iron-group elements have a metallicity dependence or mass dependence with the variable initial mass function.The occurrence of the hot bottom burning in the mass range of 5 <~ M / Msun <~ 6 is consistent with the initial mass function of the Galaxy peaked at ~ 10 - 12 Msun to be compatible with the statistics of carbon enhanced stars with and without s-process element (truncated)
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1652 Abstract: We study the enrichment histories for nine elements, C, four alpha-elements of Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, Sc, and three iron-peak elements of Co, Ni, and Zn, by using a large number of stellar data, collected by the Stellar Abundances for Galactic Archaeology (SAGA) database. We find statistically significant changes, or breaks, of the mean abundance ratios to iron at three metallicities of [Fe/H]-1.8, -2.2, and -3.3. Across the first one, the mean abundance ratios decrease with the metallicity by similar extents for all the elements with the sufficient data. Across the latter two, downward trends with the metallicity are also detected but for limited elements, C, Co, Zn, and possibly Sc, and for two of Co and Zn, respectively. The breaks define four stellar populations with the different abundance patters which are dominant in each metallicity range divided by the breaks, Pop IIa, IIb, IIc, and IId in order of increasing metallicity. We also explore their spatial distributions with the spectroscopic distances to demonstrate that Pops IIa and IIb spread over the Galactic halo while Pops IIc and IId are observed near the Galactic plane. In particular, Pop IIc stars emerge around [Fe/H] -2.6 and coexist with Pop IIb stars, segregated by the spatial distributions. Our results reveal two distinct modes of star formation during the early stages of Galaxy formation, which are associated with the variations of IMF and the spatial distribution of remnant low-mass stars. For the two lower-metallicity populations, the enhancements of Zn and Co indicate a high-mass and top-heavy IMF together with the statistics on the carbon-enhanced stars. We discuss the relevance to the kinematically resolved structures of the Galactic halo and the possible sites of these populations within the framework of hierarchical structure formation scenario.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/787/2/110 Abstract: Asteroseismology has the capability of precisely determining stellar properties which would otherwise be inaccessible, such as radii, masses and thus ages of stars. When coupling this information with classical determinations of stellar parameters, such as metallicities, effective temperatures and angular diameters, powerful new diagnostics for Galactic studies can be obtained. The ongoing Stroemgren survey for Asteroseismology and Galactic Archaeology (SAGA) has the goal of transforming the Kepler field into a new benchmark for Galactic studies, similarly to the solar neighborhood. Here we present first results from a stripe centred at Galactic longitude 74deg and covering latitude from about 8 to 20deg, which includes almost 1000 K-giants with seismic information and the benchmark open cluster NGC 6819. We describe the coupling of classical and seismic parameters, the accuracy as well as the caveats of the derived effective temperatures, metallicities, distances, surface gravities, masses, and radii. Confidence in the achieved precision is corroborated by the detection of the first and secondary clump in a population of field stars with a ratio of 2 to 1, and by the negligible scatter in the seismic distances among NGC 6819 member stars. An assessment of the reliability of stellar parameters in the Kepler Input Catalogue is also performed, and the impact of our results for population studies in the Milky Way is discussed, along with the importance of an all-sky Stroemgren survey.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/201510103001 Abstract: Asteroseismology has the capability of delivering stellar properties which would otherwise be inaccessible, such as radii, masses and thus ages of stars. When this information is coupled with classical determinations of stellar parameters, such as metallicities, effective temperatures and angular diameters, powerful new diagnostics for stellar and Galactic studies can be obtained. The ongoing Stroemgren survey for Asteroseismology and Galactic Archaeology (SAGA) is pursuing such a goal, by determining photometric stellar parameters for stars with seismic oscillations measured by the Kepler satellite. As the survey continues and expands in sample size, SAGA will provide an unprecedented opportunity to constrain theories of the evolution of the Milky Way disc.
 Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/316818 Abstract: We present first results from a program to measure the chemical abundances of a large (N>30) sample of thick disk stars with the principal goal of investigating the formation history of the Galactic thick disk. Our analysis confirms previous studies of O and Mg in the thick disk stars which reported enhancements in excess of the thin disk population. Furthermore, the observations of Si, Ca, Ti, Mn, Co, V, Zn, Al, and Eu all argue that the thick disk population has a distinct chemical history from the thin disk. With the exception of V and Co, the thick disk abundance patterns match or tend towards the values observed for halo stars with [Fe/H]~-1. This suggests that the thick disk stars had a chemical enrichment history similar to the metal-rich halo stars. With the possible exception of Si, the thick disk abundance patterns are in excellent agreement with the chemical abundances observed in the metal-poor bulge stars suggesting the two populations formed from the same gas reservoir at a common epoch. We discuss the implications for the formation of the thick disk, new insights presented for theories of nucleosynthesis, and the impact on interpretations of the abundance patterns of the damped Lya systems at high redshift. [significantly abridged]
 Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/309022 Abstract: We present measurements of [Fe/H] for six M supergiant stars and three giant stars within 0.5 pc of the Galactic Center (GC) and one M supergiant star within 30 pc of the GC. The results are based on high-resolution (lambda / Delta lambda =40,000) K-band spectra, taken with CSHELL at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility.We determine the iron abundance by detailed abundance analysis,performed with the spectral synthesis program MOOG.The mean [Fe/H] of the GC stars is determined to be near solar,[Fe/H] = +0.12 $\pm$ 0.22. Our analysis is a differential analysis, as we have observed and applied the same analysis technique to eleven cool, luminous stars in the solar neighborhood with similar temperatures and luminosities as the GC stars. The mean [Fe/H] of the solar neighborhood comparison stars, [Fe/H] = +0.03 $\pm$ 0.16, is similar to that of the GC stars. The width of the GC [Fe/H] distribution is found to be narrower than the width of the [Fe/H] distribution of Baade's Window in the bulge but consistent with the width of the [Fe/H] distribution of giant and supergiant stars in the solar neighborhood.
 Physics , 2015, Abstract: Gaia will identify several 1e5 white dwarfs, most of which will be in the solar neighborhood at distances of a few hundred parsecs. Ground-based optical follow-up spectroscopy of this sample of stellar remnants is essential to unlock the enormous scientific potential it holds for our understanding of stellar evolution, and the Galactic formation history of both stars and planets.
 Sarah L. Martell Physics , 2015, Abstract: The field of Galactic Archaeology aims to understand the origins and evolution of the stellar populations in the Milky Way, as a way to understand galaxy formation and evolution in general. The GALAH (Galactic Archaeology with HERMES) Survey is an ambitious Australian-led project to explore the Galactic history of star formation, chemical evolution, minor mergers and stellar migration. GALAH is using the HERMES spectrograph, a novel, highly multiplexed, four-channel high-resolution optical spectrograph, to collect high-quality R ~ 28,000 spectra for one million stars in the Milky Way. From these data we will determine stellar parameters, radial velocities and abundances for up to 29 elements per star, and carry out a thorough chemical tagging study of the nearby Galaxy. There are clear complementarities between GALAH and other ongoing and planned Galactic Archaeology surveys, and also with ancillary stellar data collected by of major cosmological surveys. Combined, these data sets will provide a revolutionary view of the structure and history of the Milky Way.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/756/2/121 Abstract: We present the first time-series study of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Hercules. Using a variety of telescope/instrument facilities we secured about 50 V and 80 B epochs. These data allowed us to detect and characterize 10 pulsating variable stars in Hercules. Our final sample includes 6 fundamental-mode (ab-type) and 3 first overtone (c-type) RR Lyrae stars, and one Anomalous Cepheid. The average period of the ab-type RR Lyrae stars, < Pab >= 0.68 d (sigma = 0.03 d), places Hercules in the Oosterhoff II group, as found for almost the totality of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies investigated so far for variability. The RR Lyrae stars were used to obtain independent estimates of the metallicity, reddening and distance to Hercules, for which we find: [Fe/H] = -2.30+-0.15 dex, E(B -V) = 0.09+-0.02 mag, and (m-M)o = 20.6+-0.1 mag, in good agreement with the literature values. We have obtained a V, B - V color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of Hercules that reaches V ~ 25 mag and extends beyond the galaxy's half-light radius over a total area of 40' {\times} 36'. The CMD and the RR Lyrae stars indicate the presence of a population as old and metal-poor as (at least) the Galactic globular clusters M68.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219401 Abstract: We performed a uniform and detailed abundance analysis of 12 refractory elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Co, Sc, Mn and V) for a sample of 1111 FGK dwarf stars from the HARPS GTO planet search program. 109 of these stars are known to harbour giant planetary companions and 26 stars are hosting exclusively Neptunians and super-Earths. The main goals of this paper are i) to investigate whether there are any differences between the elemental abundance trends for stars of different stellar populations; ii) to characterise the planet host and non-host samples in term of their [X/H]. The extensive study of this sample, focused on the abundance differences between stars with and without planets will be presented in a parallel paper. The equivalent widths of spectral lines are automatically measured from HARPS spectra with the ARES code. The abundances of the chemical elements are determined using a LTE abundance analysis relative to the Sun, with the 2010 revised version of the spectral synthesis code MOOG and a grid of Kurucz ATLAS9 atmospheres. To separate the Galactic stellar populations we applied both a purely kinematical approach and a chemical method. We found that the chemically separated (based on the Mg, Si, and Ti abundances) thin and thick discs are also chemically disjunct for Al, Sc, Co and Ca. Some bifurcation might also exist for Na, V, Ni, and Mn, but there is no clear boundary of their [X/Fe] ratios. We confirm that an overabundance in giant-planet host stars is clear for all the studied elements.We also confirm that stars hosting only Neptunian-like planets may be easier to detect around stars with similar metallicities as non-planet hosts, although for some elements (particulary alpha-elements) the lower limit of [X/H] are very abrupt.
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