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 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/795/1/100 Abstract: The origin of the knee in cosmic ray spectrum remains to be an unsolved fundamental problem. There are various kinds of models which predict different break positions and the compositions of the knee. In this work, we suggest to use diffuse $\gamma$-rays and neutrinos as probes to test these models. Based on several typical types of the composition models, the diffuse $\gamma$-ray and neutrino spectra are calculated, which show distinctive cutoff behaviours at energies from tens of TeV to multi-PeV. The expected flux will be observable by the newly upgraded Tibet-AS$\gamma$+MD (muon detector) experiment as well as more sensitive future projects, such as LHAASO and HiSCORE. By comparing the neutrino spectrum with the recent observations by IceCube experiment, we find that the diffuse neutrinos from interactions between the cosmic rays and the interstellar medium may not be responsible to the majority of the IceCube events. Future measurements of the neutrinos may be able to identify the Galactic diffuse component and further shed light on the problem of the knee of cosmic rays.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/793/2/131 Abstract: One attractive scenario for the excess of sub-PeV/PeV neutrinos recently reported by IceCube is that they are produced by cosmic rays in starburst galaxies colliding with the dense interstellar medium. These proton-proton ($pp$) collisions also produce high-energy gamma-rays, which finally contribute to the diffuse high-energy gamma-ray background. We calculate the diffuse gamma-ray flux with a semi-analytic approach and consider that the very high energy gamma-rays will be absorbed in the galaxies and converted into electron-position pairs, which then lose almost all their energy through synchrotron radiation in the strong magnetic fields in the starburst region. Since the synchrotron emission goes into energies below GeV, this synchrotron loss reduces the diffuse high-energy gamma-ray flux by a factor of about two, thus leaving more room for other sources to contribute to the gamma-ray background. For a $E_\nu^{-2}$ neutrino spectrum, we find that the diffuse gamma-ray flux contributes about 20% of the observed diffuse gamma-ray background in the 100 GeV range. However, for a steeper neutrino spectrum, this synchrotron loss effect is less important, since the energy fraction in absorbed gamma-rays becomes lower.
 P. Mészáros Physics , 2015, Abstract: Gamma-ray burst sources appear to fulfill all the conditions for being efficient cosmic ray accelerators, and being extremely compact, are also expected to produce multi-GeV to PeV neutrinos. I review the basic model predictions for the expected neutrino fluxes in classical GRBs as well as in low luminosity and choked bursts, discussing the recent IceCube observational constraints and implications from the observed diffuse neutrino flux.
 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2015.04.032 Abstract: IceCube has measured a diffuse astrophysical flux of TeV-PeV neutrinos. The most plausible sources are unique high energy cosmic ray accelerators like hypernova remnants (HNRs) and remnants from gamma ray bursts in star-burst galaxies, which can produce primary cosmic rays with the required energies and abundance. In this case, however, ordinary supernova remnants (SNRs), which are far more abundant than HNRs, produce a comparable or larger neutrino flux in the ranges up to 100-150 TeV energies, implying a spectral break in the IceCube signal around these energies. The SNRs contribution in the diffuse flux up to these hundred TeV energies provides a natural baseline and then constrains the expected PeV flux.
 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2015/09/036 Abstract: Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been suggested as possible sources of the high-energy neutrino flux recently detected by the IceCube telescope. We revisit the fireball emission model and elaborate an analytical prescription to estimate the high-energy neutrino prompt emission from pion and kaon decays, assuming that the leading mechanism for the neutrino production is lepto-hadronic. To this purpose, we include hadronic, radiative and adiabatic cooling effects and discuss their relevance for long- (including high- and low-luminosity) and short-duration GRBs. The expected diffuse neutrino background is derived, by requiring that the GRB high-energy neutrino counterparts follow up-to-date gamma-ray luminosity functions and redshift evolutions of the long and short GRBs. Although dedicated stacking searches have been unsuccessful up to now, we find that GRBs could contribute up to a few % to the observed IceCube high-energy neutrino flux for sub-PeV energies, assuming that the latter has a diffuse origin. Gamma-ray bursts, especially low-luminosity ones, could however be the main sources of the IceCube high-energy neutrino flux in the PeV range. While high-luminosity and low-luminosity GRBs have comparable intensities, the contribution from the short-duration component is significantly smaller. Our findings confirm the most-recent IceCube results on the GRB searches and suggest that larger exposure is mandatory to detect high-energy neutrinos from high-luminosity GRBs in the near future.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2014/11/028 Abstract: The IceCube (IC) collaboration recently reported the detection of TeV-PeV extraterrestrial neutrinos whose origin is yet unknown. By the photon-neutrino connection in $pp$ and $p\gamma$ interactions, we use the \fermi-LAT observations to constrain the origin of the IC detected neutrinos. We find that Galactic origins, i.e., the diffuse Galactic neutrinos due to cosmic ray (CR) propagation in the Milky Way, and the neutrinos from the Galactic point sources, may not produce the IC neutrino flux, thus these neutrinos should be of extragalactic origin. Moreover, the extragalactic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may not account for the IC neutrino flux, the jets of active galactic nuclei may not produce the IC neutrino spectrum, but the starburst galaxies (SBGs) may be promising sources. As suggested by the consistency between the IC detected neutrino flux and the Waxman-Bahcall bound, GRBs in SBGs may be the sources of both the ultrahigh energy, $>10^{19}$eV, CRs and the $1-100$~PeV CRs that produce the IC detected TeV-PeV neutrinos.
 Physics , 2014, Abstract: The IceCube collaboration has reported neutrinos with energies between ~30 TeV and a few PeV that are significantly enhanced over the cosmic-ray induced atmospheric background. Viable high-energy neutrino sources must contain very high-energy and ultra-high energy cosmic rays while efficiently making PeV neutrinos. Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) and blazars have been considered as candidate cosmic-ray accelerators. GRBs, including low-luminosity GRBs, can be efficient PeV neutrino emitters for low bulk Lorentz factor outflows, although the photopion production efficiency needs to be tuned to simultaneously explain ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. Photopion production efficiency of cosmic-rays accelerated in the inner jets of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) is ~1-10% due to interactions with photons of the broad-line region (BLR), whereas BL Lac objects are not effective PeV neutrino sources due to the lack of external radiation fields. Photopion threshold effects with BLR photons suppress neutrino production below ~1 PeV, which imply that neutrinos from other sources would dominate over the diffuse neutrino intensity at sub-PeV energies. Reduction of the >> PeV neutrino flux can be expected when curving cosmic-ray proton distributions are employed. Considering a log-parabolic function to describe the cosmic-ray distribution, we discuss possible implications for particle acceleration in black-hole jets. Our results encourage a search for IceCube PeV neutrino events associated with gamma-ray loud FSRQs using Fermi-LAT data. In our model, as found in our previous work, the neutrino flux is suppressed below 1 PeV, which can be tested with increased IceCube exposure.
 Nayantara Gupta Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2013.07.003 Abstract: IceCube experiment has detected two neutrinos with energies beween 1-10 PeV. They might have originated from Galactic or extragalactic sources of cosmic rays. In the present work we consider hadronic interactions of the diffuse very high energy cosmic rays with the interstellar matter within our Galaxy to explain the PeV neutrino events detected in IceCube. We also expect PeV gamma ray events along with the PeV neutrino events if the observed PeV neutrinos were produced within our Galaxy in hadronic interactions. PeV gamma rays are unlikely to reach us from sources outside our Galaxy due to pair production with cosmic background radiations. We suggest that in future with simultaneous detections of PeV gamma rays and neutrinos it would be possible to distinguish between Galactic and extragalactic origins of very high energy neutrinos.
 Physics , 2013, Abstract: A search for neutrino-induced muons in correlation with a selection of 40 gamma-ray bursts that occurred in 2007 has been performed with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. During that period, the detector consisted of 5 detection lines. The ANTARES neutrino telescope is sensitive to TeV--PeV neutrinos that are predicted from gamma-ray bursts. No events were found in correlation with the prompt photon emission of the gamma-ray bursts and upper limits have been placed on the flux and fluence of neutrinos for different models.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.83.103004 Abstract: We discuss the high energy neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts resulting from the earliest generation (`population III') stars forming in the Universe, whose core collapses into a black hole. These gamma-ray bursts are expected to produce a highly relativistic, magnetically dominated jet, where protons can be accelerated to ultra-high energies. These interact with the photons produced by the jet, leading to ultra-high energy photo-meson neutrinos as well as secondary leptons and photons. The photon luminosity and the shock properties, and thus the neutrino spectrum, depend on the mass of the black holes as well as on the density of the surrounding external gas. We calculate the individual source neutrino spectral fluxes and the expected diffuse neutrino flux for various source parameters and evolution scenarios. Both the individual and diffuse signals appear detectable in the 1-300 PeV range with current and planned neutrino detectors such as IceCube and ARIANNA, provided the black hole mass is in excess of 30-100 solar masses. This provides a possible test for the debated mass of the progenitor stellar objects, as well as a probe for the early cosmological environment and the formation rate of the earliest structures.
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