Abstract:
It is shown in the present Letter that the quantum noise due to high laser intensities in Michelson interferometer for gravitational waves detection can be reduced by sending squeezed vacuum states to the 'dark' port of the interferometer. The experimental details of such physical system have been described in a recent article by Barak and Ben-Aryeh (JOSA-B, 25, 361(2008)). In another very recent article by Voronov and Weyrauch (Phys. Rev.A 81, 053816 (2010)) they have followed our methods for treating the same physical system, and have pointed out an error in the sign of one of our expressions thus claiming for the elimination of our physical results. I show here a method by which the expectation value for the photon number operator is increased and at the same time the standard deviation is reduced. Although due to the mistake in sign in our expression the physical method for obtaining such result is different from our original study [1], the main physical effect can remain .

Abstract:
Twin-Signal-Recycling (TSR) builds on the resonance doublet of two optically coupled cavities and efficiently enhances the sensitivity of an interferometer at a dedicated signal frequency. We report on the first experimental realization of a Twin-Signal-Recycling Michelson interferometer and also its broadband enhancement by squeezed light injection. The complete setup was stably locked and a broadband quantum noise reduction of the interferometers shot noise by a factor of up to 4\,dB was demonstrated. The system was characterized by measuring its quantum noise spectra for several tunings of the TSR cavities. We found good agreement between the experimental results and numerical simulations.

Abstract:
We report the first use of Michelson interferometry on the Keck I telescope for diffraction-limited imaging in the near infrared JHK and L bands. By using an aperture mask located close to the f/25 secondary, the 10 m Keck primary mirror was transformed into a separate-element, multiple aperture interferometer. This has allowed diffraction-limited imaging of a large number of bright astrophysical targets, including the geometrically complex dust envelopes around a number of evolved stars. The successful restoration of these images, with dynamic ranges in excess of 200:1, highlights the significant capabilities of sparse aperture imaging as compared with more conventional filled-pupil speckle imaging for the class of bright targets considered here. In particular the enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio of the Fourier data, precipitated by the reduction in atmospheric noise, allows high fidelity imaging of complex sources with small numbers of short-exposure images relative to speckle. Multi-epoch measurements confirm the reliability of this imaging technique and our whole dataset provides a powerful demonstration of the capabilities of aperture masking methods when utilized with the current generation of large-aperture telescopes. The relationship between these new results and recent advances in interferometry and adaptive optics is briefly discussed.

Abstract:
Quantum fluctuations in the radiation pressure of light can excite stochastic motions of mechanical oscillators thereby realizing a linear quantum opto-mechanical coupling. When performing a precise measurement of the position of an oscillator, this coupling results in quantum radiation pressure noise. Up to now this effect has not been observed yet. Generally speaking, the strength of radiation pressure noise increases when the effective mass of the oscillator is decreased or when the power of the reflected light is increased. Recently, extremely light SiN membranes with high mechanical Q-values at room temperature have attracted attention as low thermal noise mechanical oscillators. However, the power reflectance of these membranes is much lower than unity which makes the use of advanced interferometer recycling techniques to amplify the radiation pressure noise in a standard Michelson interferometer inefficient. Here, we propose and theoretically analyze a Michelson-Sagnac interferometer that includes the membrane as a common end mirror for the Michelson interferometer part. In this new topology, both, power- and signal-recycling can be used even if the reflectance of the membrane is much lower than unity. In particular, signal-recycling is a useful tool because it does not involve a power increase at the membrane. We derive the formulas for the quantum radiation pressure noise and the shot-noise of an oscillator position measurement and compare them with theoretical models of the thermal noise of a SiN membrane with a fundamental resonant frequency of 75 kHz and an effective mass of 125 ng. We find that quantum radiation pressure noise should be observable with a power of 1 W at the central beam splitter of the interferometer and a membrane temperature of 1 K.

Abstract:
Thermally induced fluctuations impose a fundamental limit on precision measurement. In optical interferometry, the current bounds of stability and sensitivity are dictated by the excess mechanical damping of the high-reflectivity coatings that comprise the cavity end mirrors. Over the preceding decade, the mechanical loss of these amorphous multilayer reflectors has at best been reduced by a factor of two. Here we demonstrate a new paradigm in optical coating technology based on direct-bonded monocrystalline multilayers, which exhibit both intrinsically low mechanical loss and high optical quality. Employing these "crystalline coatings" as end mirrors in a Fabry-P\'erot cavity, we obtain a finesse of 150,000. More importantly, at room temperature, we observe a thermally-limited noise floor consistent with a tenfold reduction in mechanical damping when compared with the best dielectric multilayers. These results pave the way for the next generation of ultra-sensitive interferometers, as well as for new levels of laser stability.

Abstract:
In standard nonrelativistic quantum mechanics the expectation of the energy is a conserved quantity. It is possible to extend the dynamical law associated with the evolution of a quantum state consistently to include a nonlinear stochastic component, while respecting the conservation law. According to the dynamics thus obtained, referred to as the energy-based stochastic Schrodinger equation, an arbitrary initial state collapses spontaneously to one of the energy eigenstates, thus describing the phenomenon of quantum state reduction. In this article, two such models are investigated: one that achieves state reduction in infinite time, and the other in finite time. The properties of the associated energy expectation process and the energy variance process are worked out in detail. By use of a novel application of a nonlinear filtering method, closed-form solutions--algebraic in character and involving no integration--are obtained for both these models. In each case, the solution is expressed in terms of a random variable representing the terminal energy of the system, and an independent noise process. With these solutions at hand it is possible to simulate explicitly the dynamics of the quantum states of complicated physical systems.

Abstract:
This paper reports an experimental demonstration of partial displacement noise free laser interferometry in the gravitational wave detection band. The used detuned Fabry-Perot cavity allows the isolation of the mimicked gravitational wave signal from the displacement noise on the cavities input mirror. By properly combining the reflected and transmitted signals from the cavity a reduction of the displacement noise was achieved. Our results represent the first experimental demonstration of this recently proposed displacement noise free laser interferometry scheme. Overall we show that the rejection ratio of the displacement noise to the gravitational wave signal was improved in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 10 kHz with a typical factor of 60.

Abstract:
We develop a theory of quantum fluctuations and squeezing in a three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate atom interferometer with nonlinear losses. We use stochastic equations in a truncated Wigner representation to treat quantum noise. Our approach includes the multi-mode spatial evolution of spinor components and describes the many-body dynamics of a mesoscopic quantum system.

Abstract:
In a pioneering experiment, Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) demonstrated that noise correlations could be used to probe the properties of a (bosonic) particle source through quantum statistics; the effect relies on quantum interference between possible detection paths for two indistinguishable particles. HBT correlations -- together with their fermionic counterparts -- find numerous applications, ranging from quantum optics to nuclear and elementary particle physics. Spatial HBT interferometry has been suggested as a means to probe hidden order in strongly correlated phases of ultracold atoms. Here we report such a measurement on the Mott insulator phase of a rubidium Bose gas as it is released from an optical lattice trap. We show that strong periodic quantum correlations exist between density fluctuations in the expanding atom cloud. These spatial correlations reflect the underlying ordering in the lattice, and find a natural interpretation in terms of a multiple-wave HBT interference effect. The method should provide a useful tool for identifying complex quantum phases of ultracold bosonic and fermionic atoms.

Abstract:
This article discusses quantum fluctuation properties of a crystal lattice, and in particular, phonon squeezed states. Squeezed states of phonons allow a reduction in the quantum fluctuations of the atomic displacements to below the zero-point quantum noise level of coherent phonon states. Here we discuss our studies of both continuous-wave and impulsive second-order Raman scattering mechanisms. The later approach was used to experimentally suppress (by one part in a million only, which might be noise) fluctuations in phonons (and it has not been clearly reproduced by other experimental groups). We calculate the expectation values and fluctuations of both the atomic displacement and the lattice amplitude operators, as well as the effects of the phonon squeezed states on macroscopically measurable quantities, such as changes in the dielectric constant. These results are compared with recent experiments. Further information, including preprints and animations, are available in http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/\~nori/squeezed.html