Abstract:
The arithmetic triangular billiards are classically chaotic but have Poissonian energy level statistics, in ostensible violation of the BGS conjecture. We show that the length spectra of their periodic orbits divides into subspectra differing by the parity of the number of reflections from the triangle sides; in the quantum treatment that parity defines the reflection phase of the orbit contribution to the Gutzwiller formula for the energy level density. We apply these results to all 85 arithmetic triangles and establish the boundary conditions under which the quantum billiard is \textquotedblleft genuinely arithmetic\textquotedblright, i. e., has Poissonian level statistics; otherwise the billiard is "pseudo-arithmetic" and belongs to the GOE universality class

Abstract:
We establish a duality between the quantum wave vector spectrum and the eigenmodes of the classical Liouvillian dynamics for integrable billiards. Signatures of the classical eigenmodes appear as peaks in the correlation function of the quantum wave vector spectrum. A semiclassical derivation and numerical calculations are presented in support of the results. These classical eigenmodes can be observed in physical experiments through the auto-correlation of the transmission coefficient of waves in quantum billiards. Exact classical trace formulas of the resolvent are derived for the rectangle, equilateral triangle, and circle billiards. We also establish a correspondence between the classical periodic orbit length spectrum and the quantum spectrum for integrable polygonal billiards.

Abstract:
In this paper we prove results on Birkhoff and Oseledets genericity along certain curves in the space of affine lattices and in moduli spaces of translation surfaces. We also prove applications of these results to dynamical billiards, mathematical physics and number theory. In the space of affine lattices $ASL_2(\mathbb{R})/ASL_2( \mathbb{Z})$, we prove that almost every point on a curve with some non-degeneracy assumptions is Birkhoff generic for the geodesic flow. This implies almost everywhere genericity for some curves in the locus of branched covers of the torus inside the stratum $\mathcal{H}(1,1)$ of translation surfaces. For these curves (and more in general curves which are well-approximated by horocycle arcs and satisfy almost everywhere Birkhoff genericity) we also prove that almost every point is Oseledets generic for the Kontsevitch-Zorich cocycle, generalizing a recent result by Chaika and Eskin. As applications, we first consider a class of pseudo-integrable billiards, billiards in ellipses with barriers, which was recently explored by Dragovic and Radnovic, and prove that for almost every parameter, the billiard flow is uniquely ergodic within the region of phase space in which it is trapped. We then consider any periodic array of Eaton retroreflector lenses, placed on vertices of a lattice, and prove that in almost every direction light rays are each confined to a band of finite width. This generalizes a phenomenon recently discovered by Fraczek and Schmoll which could so far only be proved for random periodic configurations. Finally, a result on the gap distribution of fractional parts of the sequence of square roots of positive integers, which extends previous work by Elkies and McMullen, is also obtained.

Abstract:
This article presents a new method to calculate eigenvalues of right triangle billiards. Its efficiency is comparable to the boundary integral method and more recently developed variants. Its simplicity and explicitness however allow new insight into the statistical properties of the spectra. We analyse numerically the correlations in level sequences at high level numbers (>10^5) for several examples of right triangle billiards. We find that the strength of the correlations is closely related to the genus of the invariant surface of the classical billiard flow. Surprisingly, the genus plays and important role on the quantum level also. Based on this observation a mechanism is discussed, which may explain the particular quantum-classical correspondence in right triangle billiards. Though this class of systems is rather small, it contains examples for integrable, pseudo integrable, and non integrable (ergodic, mixing) dynamics, so that the results might be relevant in a more general context.

Abstract:
Friedel oscillations of electron densities near step edges have an analog in microwave billiards. A random plane wave model, normally only appropriate for the eigenfunctions of a purely chaotic system, can be applied and is tested for non-purely-chaotic dynamical systems with measurements on pseudo-integrable and mixed dynamics geometries. It is found that the oscillations in the pseudo-integrable microwave cavity matches the random plane-wave modeling. Separating the chaotic from the regular states for the mixed system requires incorporating an appropriate phase space projection into the modeling in multiple ways for good agreement with experiment.

Abstract:
Outer Billiards is a geometrically inspired dynamical system based on a convex shape in the plane. When the shape is a polygon, the system has a combinatorial flavor. In the polygonal case, there is a natural acceleration of the map, a first return map to a certain strip in the plane. The arithmetic graph is a geometric encoding of the symbolic dynamics of this first return map. In the case of the regular octagon, the case we study, the arithmetic graphs associated to periodic orbits are polygonal paths in R^8. We are interested in the asymptotic shapes of these polygonal paths, as the period tends to infinity. We show that the rescaled limit of essentially any sequence of these graphs converges to a fractal curve that simultaneously projects one way onto a variant of the Koch snowflake and another way onto a variant of the Sierpinski carpet. In a sense, this gives a complete description of the asymptotic behavior of the symbolic dynamics of the first return map. What makes all our proofs work is an efficient (and basically well known) renormalization scheme for the dynamics.

Abstract:
We study the deep interplay between geometry of quadrics in d-dimensional space and the dynamics of related integrable billiard systems. Various generalizations of Poncelet theorem are reviewed. The corresponding analytic conditions of Cayley's type are derived giving the full description of periodical billiard trajectories; among other cases, we consider billiards in arbitrary dimension d with the boundary consisting of arbitrary number k of confocal quadrics. Several important examples are presented in full details demonstrating the effectiveness of the obtained results. We give a thorough analysis of classical ideas and results of Darboux and methodology of Lebesgue, and prove their natural generalizations, obtaining new interesting properties of pencils of quadrics. At the same time, we show essential connections between these classical ideas and the modern algebro-geometric approach in the integrable systems theory.

Abstract:
We consider virtual billiard dynamics within quadrics in pseudo--Euclidean spaces, where in contrast to the usual billiards, the incoming velocity and the velocity after the billiard reflection can be at opposite sides of the tangent plane at the reflection point. The discrete symplectic and contact integrability (in the case of light--like trajectories) of the dynamics is described by the use of the Dirac--Poisson bracket. In the symmetric case we prove noncommutative integrability of the system and give a geometrical interpretation of integrals, an analog of the classical Chasles and Poncelet theorems. We also establish a relation between the pseudo--Euclidean virtual billiards and the Heisenberg spin chain model. Finally, we show that the virtual billiard dynamics provides a natural framework in the study of billiards within quadrics in projective spaces, in particular of billiards within ellipsoids on the sphere $\mathbb S^{n-1}$ and the Lobachevsky space $\mathbb H^{n-1}$.

Abstract:
Many classical facts in Riemannian geometry have their pseudo-Riemannian analogs. For instance, the spaces of space-like and time-like geodesics on a pseudo-Riemannian manifold have natural symplectic structures (just like in the Riemannian case), while the space of light-like geodesics has a natural contact structure. We discuss the geometry of these structures in detail, as well as introduce and study pseudo-Euclidean billiards. In particular, we prove pseudo-Euclidean analogs of the Jacobi-Chasles theorems and show the integrability of the billiard in the ellipsoid and the geodesic flow on the ellipsoid in a pseudo-Euclidean space.

Abstract:
We prove that if the outer billiard map around a plane oval is algebraically integrable in a certain non-degenerate sense then the oval is an ellipse.