Abstract:
We measure Anderson localization in quasi-one-dimensional waveguides in the presence of absorption by analyzing the echo dynamics due to small perturbations. We specifically show that the inverse participation number of localized modes dictates the decay of the Loschmidt echo, differing from the Gaussian decay expected for diffusive or chaotic systems. Our theory, based on a random matrix modeling, agrees perfectly with scattering echo measurements on a quasi one-dimensional microwave cavity filled with randomly distributed scatterers.

Abstract:
We show that in the classical interaction picture the echo-dynamics, namely the composition of perturbed forward and unperturbed backward hamiltonian evolution, can be treated as a time-dependent hamiltonian system. For strongly chaotic (Anosov) systems we derive a cascade of exponential decays for the classical Loschmidt echo, starting with the leading Lyapunov exponent, followed by a sum of two largest exponents, etc. In the loxodromic case a decay starts with the rate given as twice the largest Lyapunov exponent. For a class of perturbations of symplectic maps the echo-dynamics exhibits a drift resulting in a super-exponential decay of the Loschmidt echo.

Abstract:
We study the possibility to undo the quantum mechanical evolution in a time reversal experiment. The naive expectation, as reflected in the common terminology ("Loschmidt echo"), is that maximum compensation results if the reversed dynamics extends to the same time as the forward evolution. We challenge this belief, and demonstrate that the time $t_r$ for maximum return probability is in general shorter. We find that $t_r$ depends on $lambda = eps_evol/eps_prep$, being the ratio of the error in setting the parameters (fields) for the time reversed evolution to the perturbation which is involved in the preparation process. Our results should be observable in spin-echo experiments where the dynamical irreversibility of quantum phases is measured.

Abstract:
In this paper we review our recent work on the theoretical approach to quantum Loschmidt echoes, i.e. various properties of the so called echo dynamics -- the composition of forward and backward time evolutions generated by two slightly different Hamiltonians, such as the state autocorrelation function (fidelity) and the purity of a reduced density matrix traced over a subsystem (purity fidelity). Our main theoretical result is a linear response formalism, expressing the fidelity and purity fidelity in terms of integrated time autocorrelation function of the generator of the perturbation. Surprisingly, this relation predicts that the decay of fidelity is the slower the faster the decay of correlations. In particular for a static (time-independent) perturbation, and for non-ergodic and non-mixing dynamics where asymptotic decay of correlations is absent, a qualitatively different and faster decay of fidelity is predicted on a time scale 1/delta as opposed to mixing dynamics where the fidelity is found to decay exponentially on a time-scale 1/delta^2, where delta is a strength of perturbation. A detailed discussion of a semi-classical regime of small effective values of Planck constant is given where classical correlation functions can be used to predict quantum fidelity decay. Note that the correct and intuitively expected classical stability behavior is recovered in the classical limit, as the perturbation and classical limits do not commute. The theoretical results are demonstrated numerically for two models, the quantized kicked top and the multi-level Jaynes Cummings model. Our method can for example be applied to the stability analysis of quantum computation and quantum information processing.

Abstract:
We study the Loschmidt echo F(t) for a class of dynamical systems showing critical chaos. Using a kicked rotor with singular potential as a prototype model, we found that the classical echo shows a gap (initial drop) 1-F_g where F_g scales as F_g(\alpha, \epsilon, \eta)= f_cl(\chi_cl equiv\eta^{3-\alpha}/\epsilon); \alpha is the order of singularity of the potential, \eta is the spread of the initial phase space density and \epsilon is the perturbation strength. Instead, the quantum echo gap is insensitive to \alpha, described by a scaling law F_g = f_q(\chi_q = \eta^2/\epsilon) which can be captured by a Random Matrix Theory modeling of critical systems. We trace this quantum-classical discrepancy to strong diffraction effects that dominate the dynamics.

Abstract:
some recent theoretical results on the stability of quantum dynamics against perturbations of the hamiltonian - the so-called loschmidt echoes and their relation to various decoherence measures are reviewed. we show that the representation of loschmidt echoes in terms of the wigner function can explain some seemingly paradoxical behavior of the quantum-classical correspondence.

Abstract:
We examine an exactly solvable model of decoherence -- a spin-system interacting with a collection of environment spins. We show that in this simple model (introduced some time ago to illustrate environment--induced superselection) generic assumptions about the coupling strengths lead to a universal (Gaussian) suppression of coherence between pointer states. We explore the regime of validity of this result and discuss its relation to spectral features of the environment. We also consider its relevance to the experiments on the so-called Loschmidt echo (which measures, in effect, the fidelity between the initial and time-reversed or "echo" signal). In particular, we show that for partial reversals (e.g., when of only a part of the total Hamiltonian changes sign) fidelity will exhibit a Gaussian dependence on the time of reversal. In such cases echo may become independent of the details of the reversal procedure or the specifics of the coupling to the environment. This puzzling behavior was observed in several NMR experiments. Natural candidates for such two environments (one of which is easily reversed, while the other is ``irreversible'') are suggested for the experiment involving ferrocene.

Abstract:
We propose a boundary thermodynamic Bethe ansatz calculation technique to obtain the Loschmidt echo and the statistics of the work done when a global quantum quench is performed on an integrable quantum field theory. We derive an analytic expression for the lowest edge of the probability density function and find that it exhibits universal features, in the sense that its scaling form depends only on the statistics of excitations. We perform numerical calculations on the sinh-Gordon model, a deformation of the free boson theory, and we obtain that by turning on the interaction the density function develops fermionic properties. The calculations are facilitated by a previously unnoticed property of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz construction.

Abstract:
A resolution of the Loschmidt paradox on the Boltzmann H theorem is proposed, based on some new concepts concerning motion backwards in time. The key to this resolution, taken from our interpretation of motion backwards in time, is the associated notion of negative mass, attributed to particles moving backwards in time, which we call retro particles, or simply retrons.

Abstract:
VoIP (voice over internet protocol) is very popular communication technology of this century and has played tremendous role in communication system. It is preferred by all because it deploys many benefits it uses Internet protocol (IP) networks to deliver multimedia information such as speech over a data network. VoIP system can be configured in these connection modes respectively; PC to PC, Telephony to Telephony and PC to Telephony. Echo is very annoying problem which occurs in VoIP and echo reduces the voice quality of VoIP. It is not possible to remove echo 100% from echoed signal because if echo is tried to be eliminated completely then the attempt may distort the main signal. That is why echo cannot be eliminated echo perfectly but the echo to a tolerable range. Clipping is not a good solution to suppress echo because part of speech may erroneously removed. Besides an NLP does not respond rapidly enough and also confuses the fading of the voice level at the end of a sentence with a residual echo. This paper has proposed echo cancellation in VoIP that has been tested and verified by MATLAB. The goal was to suppress echo without clipping and distorting the main signal. By the help of MATLAB program the echo is minimized to enduring level so that the received signal seems echo free. The percentage of suppressing echo varies with the amplitude of the main signal. With regarding the amplitude variation in received (echo free) signal the proposed method performs better in finding the echo free signal than the other conventional system.