Abstract:
We investigate the validity of the generalized second law of gravitational thermodynamics on the apparent and event horizons in a non-flat FRW universe containing the interacting dark energy with dark matter. We show that for the dynamical apparent horizon, the generalized second law is always satisfied throughout the history of the universe for any spatial curvature and it is independent of the equation of state parameter of the interacting dark energy model. Whereas for the cosmological event horizon, the validity of the generalized second law depends on the equation of state parameter of the model.

Abstract:
We discuss some of the drawbacks of using event horizons to define black holes. The reasons are both practical, physical and theoretical. We argue that locally defined trapping horizons can remedy many of these drawbacks. We examine of the question of whether black hole thermodynamics should be associated with event horizons or trapping horizons. To this end we discuss what role trapping horizons may play in black hole thermodynamics. In addition, we show how trapping horizons may give rise to Hawking radiation and discuss the issue of gravitational entropy.

Abstract:
We have investigated the non-static Lorentzian Wormhole model in presence of anisotropic pressure. We have presented some exact solutions of Einstein equations for anisotropic pressure case. Introducing two EoS parameters we have shown that these solutions give very rich dynamics of the universe yielding to the different expansion history of it in the $r$ - direction and in the $T$ - direction. The corresponding explicit forms of the shape function $b(r)$ is presented.We have shown that the Einstein's field equations and unified first law are equivalent for the dynamical wormhole model. The first law of thermodynamics has been derived by using the Unified first law. The physical quantities including surface gravity and the temperature are derived for the wormhole. Here we have obtained all the results without any choice of the shape function. The validity of generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics has been examined at apparent and event horizons for the evolving Lorentzian wormhole.

Abstract:
We review the classical thermodynamics and the greybody factors of general (rotating) non-extreme black holes and discuss universal features of their near-horizon geometry. We motivate a microscopic interpretation of general black holes that relates the thermodynamics of an effective string theory to the geometry of the black hole in the vicinity of both the outer and the inner event horizons. In this framework we interpret several near-extreme examples, the universal low-energy absorption cross-section, and the emission of higher partial waves from general black holes.

Abstract:
We propose an expression for the entropy density associated with the Local Causal Horizons in any diffeomorphism invariant theory of gravity. If the black-hole entropy of the theory satisfies the physical process version of the first law of thermodynamics then our proposed entropy satisfies the Clausius relation. Thus, our study shows that the thermodynamic nature of the spacetime horizons is not restricted to the black holes; it also applies to the local causal horizons in the neighborhood of any point in the spacetime.

Abstract:
The dynamics of apparent and event horizons of various black hole spacetimes, including those containing distorted, rotating and colliding black holes, are studied. We have developed a powerful and efficient new method for locating the event horizon, making possible the study of both types of horizons in numerical relativity. We show that both the event and apparent horizons, in all dynamical black hole spacetimes studied, oscillate with the quasinormal frequency.

Abstract:
We study the evolution of cosmological event horizons in anisotropic Kasner universes in the presence of a positive cosmological constant by analyzing null geodesics. At later times, the asymptotic form of cosmological horizons is the same spherical surface as the de Sitter horizon. At the early times, however, it has non-spherical shape with its eccentricity decreases with time. The horizon area increases with time respecting the second law of thermodynamics. The initial shape of the cosmological horizon takes the form of a needle or pancake surface depending on the nature of the background spacetimes. We also discuss that the presence of the holographic dark energy will modify significantly the initial evolution of the anisotropic universes.

Abstract:
Spacetimes with horizons show a resemblance to thermodynamic systems and it is possible to associate the notions of temperature and entropy with them. Several aspects of this connection are reviewed in a manner appropriate for broad readership. The approach uses two essential principles: (a) the physical theories must be formulated for each observer entirely in terms of variables any given observer can access and (b) consistent formulation of quantum field theory requires analytic continuation to the complex plane. These two principles, when used together in spacetimes with horizons, are powerful enough to provide several results in a unified manner. Since spacetimes with horizons have a generic behaviour under analytic continuation, standard results of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes with horizons can be obtained directly (Sections III to VII). The requirements (a) and (b) also put strong constraints on the action principle describing the gravity and, in fact, one can obtain the Einstein-Hilbert action from the thermodynamic considerations. The latter part of the review (Sections VIII to X) investigates this deeper connection between gravity, spacetime microstructure and thermodynamics of horizons. This approach leads to several interesting results in the semiclassical limit of quantum gravity, which are described.

Abstract:
We present several recent results concerning Cauchy and event horizons. In the first part of the paper we review the differentiablity properties of the Cauchy and the event horizons. In the second part we discuss compact Cauchy horizons and summarize their main properties.

Abstract:
In this brief communication, we have studied the validity of the first law of thermodynamics for the universe bounded by event horizon with two examples. The key point is the appropriate choice of the temperature on the event horizon. Finally, we have concluded that universe bounded by the event horizon may be a Bekenstein system and the Einstein's equations and the first law of thermodynamics on the event horizons are equivalent.