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Energy flow and fluctuations in non-equilibrium conformal field theory on star graphs  [PDF]
Benjamin Doyon,Marianne Hoogeveen,Denis Bernard
Statistics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/1742-5468/2014/03/P03002
Abstract: We consider non-equilibrium quantum steady states in conformal field theory (CFT) on star-graph configurations, with a particular, simple connection condition at the vertex of the graph. These steady states occur after a large time as a result of initially thermalizing the legs of the graph at different temperatures, and carry energy flows. Using purely Virasoro algebraic calculations we evaluate the exact long-time cumulant generating function for these flows. We show that this function satisfies a generalization of the usual non-equilibrium fluctuation relations. This extends the results by two of the authors (J. Phys. A 45: 362001, 2012; arXiv:1302.3125) to the cases of more than two legs. It also provides an alternative derivation centered on Virasoro algebra operators rather than local fields, hence an alternative regularization scheme, thus confirming the validity and universality of the long-time cumulant generating function. Our derivation shows how the usual Virasoro algebra leads, in large volumes, to a continuous-index Virasoro algebra for which we develop diagramatic principles, which may be of interest in other non-equilibrium contexts as well. Finally, our results shed light on the Poisson process interpretation of the long-time energy transfer in CFT.
Non-Equilibrium Conformal Field Theories with Impurities  [PDF]
D. Bernard,B. Doyon,J. Viti
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/1751-8113/48/5/05FT01
Abstract: We present a construction of non-equilibrium steady states within conformal field theory. These states sustain energy flows between two quantum systems, initially prepared at different temperatures, whose dynamical properties are represented by two, possibly different, conformal field theories connected through an impurity. This construction relies on a real time formulation of conformal defect dynamics based on a field scattering picture parallelizing - but yet different from - the Euclidean formulation. We present the basic characteristics of this formulation and give an algebraic construction of the real time scattering maps that we illustrate in the case of SU(2)-based conformal field theories.
Non-equilibrium steady-states in conformal field theory  [PDF]
Denis Bernard,Benjamin Doyon
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s00023-014-0314-8
Abstract: We present a construction of non-equilibrium steady states in one-dimensional quantum critical systems carrying energy and charge fluxes. This construction is based on a scattering approach within a real-time hamiltonian reservoir formulation. Using conformal field theory techniques, we prove convergence towards steady states at large time. We discuss in which circumstances these states describe the universal non-equilibrium regime at low temperatures. We compute the exact large deviation functions for both energy and charge transfers, which encode for the quantum and statistical fluctuations of these transfers at large time. They are universal, depending only on fundamental constants (h, k_B), on the central charge and on the external parameters such as the temperatures or the chemical potentials, and they satisfy fluctuation relations. A key point consists in relating the derivatives of these functions to the linear response functions but at complex shifted external parameters.
Uniqueness of Conformal Ricci Flow using Energy Methods  [PDF]
Thomas Bell
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We analyze an energy functional associated to Conformal Ricci Flow along closed manifolds with constant negative scalar curvature. Given initial conditions we use this functional to demonstrate the uniqueness of both the metric and the pressure function along Conformal Ricci Flow.
Generalised equilibrium of cosmological fluids in second-order thermodynamics  [PDF]
Winfried Zimdahl,J'er,ome Gariel,G'erard Le Denmat
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/16/10/312
Abstract: Combining the second-order entropy flow vector of the causal Israel-Stewart theory with the conformal Killing-vector property of $u_{i}/T$, where $u_{i}$ is the four-velocity of the medium and T its equilibrium temperature, we investigate generalized equilibrium states for cosmological fluids with nonconserved particle number. We calculate the corresponding equilibrium particle production rate and show that this quantity is reduced compared with the results of the previously studied first-order theory. Generalized equilibrium for massive particles turns out to be compatible with a dependence $\rho \propto a ^{-2}$ of the fluid energy density $\rho$ on the scale factor a of the Robertson-Walker metric and may be regarded as a realization of so-called K-matter.
Far from equilibrium energy flow in quantum critical systems  [PDF]
M. J. Bhaseen,Benjamin Doyon,Andrew Lucas,Koenraad Schalm
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/nphys3220
Abstract: We investigate far from equilibrium energy transport in strongly coupled quantum critical systems. Combining results from gauge-gravity duality, relativistic hydrodynamics, and quantum field theory, we argue that long-time energy transport occurs via a universal steady-state for any spatial dimensionality. This is described by a boosted thermal state. We determine the transport properties of this emergent steady state, including the average energy flow and its long-time fluctuations.
A hydrodynamic approach to non-equilibrium conformal field theories  [PDF]
Denis Bernard,Benjamin Doyon
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We develop a hydrodynamic approach to non-equilibrium conformal field theory. We study non-equilibrium steady states in the context of one-dimensional conformal field theory perturbed by the $T\bar T$ irrelevant operator. By direct quantum computation, we show, to first order in the coupling, that a relativistic hydrodynamic emerges, which is a simple modification of one-dimensional conformal fluids. We show that it describes the steady state and its approach, and we provide the main characteristics of the steady state, which lies between two shock waves. The velocities of these shocks are modified by the perturbation and equal the sound velocities of the asymptotic baths. Pushing further this approach, we are led to conjecture that the approach to the steady state is generically controlled by the power law $t^{-1/2}$, and that the widths of the shocks increase with time according to $t^{1/3}$.
Gradient Flow in Logarithmic Conformal Field Theory  [PDF]
Nick E. Mavromatos,Richard J. Szabo
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(98)00500-0
Abstract: We establish conditions under which the worldsheet beta-functions of logarithmic conformal field theories can be derived as the gradient of some scalar function on the moduli space of running coupling constants. We derive a renormalization group invariant version of this function and relate it to the usual Zamolodchikov C-function expressed in terms of correlation functions of the worldsheet energy-momentum tensor. The results are applied to the example of D-brane recoil in string theory.
Massless renormalization group flow in SU(N)$_k$ perturbed conformal field theory  [PDF]
P. Lecheminant
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2015.11.004
Abstract: We investigate the infrared properties of SU(N)$_k$ conformal field theory perturbed by its adjoint primary field in 1+1 dimensions. The latter field theory is shown to govern the low-energy properties of various SU(N) spin chain problems. In particular, using a mapping onto k-leg SU(N) spin ladder, a massless renormalization group flow to SU(N)$_1$ criticality is predicted when N and k have no common divisor. The latter result extends the well-known massless flow between SU(2)$_k$ and SU(2)$_1$ Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten theories when k is odd in connection to the Haldane's conjecture on SU(2) Heisenberg spin chains. A direct approach is presented in the simplest N=3 and k=2 case to investigate the existence of this massless flow.
Energy Level Distribution of Perturbed Conformal Field Theories  [PDF]
G. P. Brandino,R. M. Konik,G. Mussardo
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/1742-5468/2010/07/P07013
Abstract: We study the energy level spacing of perturbed conformal minimal models in finite volume, considering perturbations of such models that are massive but not necessarily integrable. We compute their spectrum using a renormalization group improved truncated conformal spectrum approach. With this method we are able to study systems where more than 40000 states are kept and where we determine the energies of the lowest several thousand eigenstates with high accuracy. We find, as expected, that the level spacing statistics of integrable perturbed minimal models are Poissonian while the statistics of non-integrable perturbations are GOE-like. However by varying the system size (and so controlling the positioning of the theory between its IR and UV limits) one can induce crossovers between the two statistical distributions.
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