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Performance of the Hamamatsu R11410 Photomultiplier Tube in cryogenic Xenon Environments  [PDF]
Laura Baudis,Annika Behrens,Alfredo Ferella,Alexander Kish,Teresa Marrodan Undagoitia,Daniel Mayani,Marc Schumann
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/8/04/P04026
Abstract: The Hamamatsu R11410 photomultiplier, a tube of 3" diameter and with a very low intrinsic radioactivity, is an interesting light sensor candidate for future experiments using liquid xenon (LXe) as target for direct dark matter searches. We have performed several experiments with the R11410 with the goal of testing its performance in environments similar to a dark matter detector setup. In particular, we examined its long-term behavior and stability in LXe and its response in various electric field configurations.
Lowering the radioactivity of the photomultiplier tubes for the XENON1T dark matter experiment  [PDF]
E. Aprile,F. Agostini,M. Alfonsi,L. Arazi,K. Arisaka,F. Arneodo,M. Auger,C. Balan,P. Barrow,L. Baudis,B. Bauermeister,A. Behrens,P. Beltrame,A. Brown,E. Brown,S. Bruenner,G. Bruno,R. Budnik,L. Buetikofer,J. M. R. Cardoso,D. Coderre,A. P. Colijn,H. Contreras,J. P. Cussonneau,M. P. Decowksi,A. Di Giovanni,E. Duchovni,S. Fattori,A. D. Ferella,A. Fieguth,W. Fulgione,M. Garbini,C. Geis,L. W. Goetzke,C. Grignon,E. Gross,W. Hampel,R. Itay,F. Kaether,G. Kessler,A. Kish,H. Landsman,R. F. Lang,M. Le Calloch,D. Lellouch,L. Levinson,C. Levy,S. Lindemann,M. Lindner,J. A. M. Lopes,A. Lyashenko,S. Macmullin,T. Marrodan Undagoitia,J. Masbou,F. V. Massoli,D. Mayani,A. J. Melgarejo Fernandez,Y. Meng,M. Messina,B. Miguez,A. Molinario,G. Morana,M. Murra,J. Naganoma,U. Oberlack,S. E. A. Orrigo,P. Pakarha,E. Pantic,R. Persiani,F. Piastra,J. Pienaar,G. Plante,N. Priel,L. Rauch,S. Reichard,C. Reuter,A. Rizzo,S. Rosendahl,J. M. F. dos Santos,G. Sartorelli,S. Schindler,J. Schreiner,M. Schumann,L. Scotto Lavina,M. Selvi,P. Shagin,H. Simgen,A. Teymourian,D. Thers,A. Tiseni,G. Trinchero,C. Tunnell,O. Vitells,R. Wall,H. Wang,M. Weber,C. Weinheimer,M. Laubenstein
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The low-background, VUV-sensitive 3-inch diameter photomultiplier tube R11410 has been developed by Hamamatsu for dark matter direct detection experiments using liquid xenon as the target material. We present the results from the joint effort between the XENON collaboration and the Hamamatsu company to produce a highly radio-pure photosensor (version R11410-21) for the XENON1T dark matter experiment. After introducing the photosensor and its components, we show the methods and results of the radioactive contamination measurements of the individual materials employed in the photomultiplier production. We then discuss the adopted strategies to reduce the radioactivity of the various PMT versions. Finally, we detail the results from screening 216 tubes with ultra-low background germanium detectors, as well as their implications for the expected electronic and nuclear recoil background of the XENON1T experiment.
Measurement of the absolute Quantum Efficiency of Hamamatsu model R11410-10 photomultiplier tubes at low temperatures down to liquid xenon boiling point  [PDF]
Alexey Lyashenko,Tam Nguyen,Adam Snyder,Hanguo Wang,Katsushi Arisaka
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/9/11/P11021
Abstract: We report on the measurements of the absolute Quantum Efficiency(QE) for Hamamatsu model R11410-10 PMTs specially designed for the use in low background liquid xenon detectors. QE was measured for five PMTs in a spectral range between 154.5 nm to 400 nm at low temperatures down to -110$^0$C. It was shown that during the PMT cooldown from room temperature to -110 $^0$C (a typical PMT operation temperature in liquid xenon detectors), the absolute QE increases by a factor of 1.1 - 1.15 at 175 nm. The QE growth rate with respect to temperature is wavelength dependent peaking at about 165 nm corresponding to the fastest growth of about -0.07 %QE/$^{0}C$ and at about 200 nm corresponding to slowest growth of below -0.01 %QE/$^{0}C$. A dedicated setup and methods for PMT Quantum Efficiency measurement at low temperatures are described in details.
Study of light detection and sensitivity for a ton-scale liquid xenon dark matter detector  [PDF]
Y Wei,Q Lin,X Xiao,K Ni
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/8/06/T06002
Abstract: Ton-scale liquid xenon detectors operated in two-phase mode are proposed and being constructed recently to explore the favored parameter space for the Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) dark matter. To achieve a better light collection eff ciency while limiting the number of electronics channels compared to the previous generation detectors, large-size photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) such as the 3-inch-diameter R11410 from Hamamatsu are suggested to replace the 1-inch-square R8520 PMTs. In a two-phase xenon dark matter detector, two PMT arrays on the top and bottom are usually used. In this study, we compare the performance of two different ton-scale liquid xenon detector conf gurations with the same number of either R11410 (conf g.1) or R8520 (conf g.2) for the top PMT array, while both using R11410 PMTs for the bottom array.
Performance of Photosensors in the PandaX-I Experiment  [PDF]
Shaoli Li,Xun Chen,Karl L. Giboni,Guodong Guo,Xiangdong Ji,Qing Lin,Jianglai Liu,Yajun Mao,Kaixuan Ni,Xiangxiang Ren,Andi Tan,Mengjiao Xiao,Xiaopeng Zhou
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We report the long term performance of the photosensors, 143 one-inch R8520-406 and 37 three-inch R11410-MOD photomultipliers from Hamamatsu, in the first phase of the PandaX dual-phase xenon dark matter experiment. This is the first time that a significant number of R11410 photomultiplier tubes were operated in liquid xenon for an extended period, providing important guidance to the future large xenon-based dark matter experiments.
Observation of light emission from Hamamatsu R11410-20 photomultiplier tubes  [PDF]
D. Yu. Akimov,A. I. Bolozdynya,Yu. V. Efremenko,V. A. Kaplin,A. V. Khromov,Yu. A. Melikyan,V. V. Sosnovtsev
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2015.04.066
Abstract: We have shown that high voltage biased Hamamatsu R11410-20 photomultipliers with a dark count rate above 10 kHz emit single photons. The effect has been observed in a few units at room temperature and temperatures reduced down to -60 degrees Celsius. The effect should be taken into account in experiments aimed on search for rare events with small energy depositions in massive liquid xenon detectors.
Measurements of the position-dependent photo-detection sensitivity of the Hamamatsu R11410 and R8520 photomultiplier tubes  [PDF]
L. Baudis,S. D'Amato,G. Kessler,A. Kish,J. Wulf
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The Hamamatsu R11410 and R8520 photomultipliers (PMTs) are designed for applications in xenon-based dark matter detectors, featuring sensitivity to VUV light and stable operability at cryogenic temperatures. For eleven R11410 and seven R8520 PMTs, the relative photo-detection sensitivity at 470 nm was measured as a function of the position of the incident light on the photocathode. Typical non-uniformity values, considering 80 % of the photocathode surfaces, are 5 % - 10 % and 25 % - 30 % for the R11410 and R8520 types, respectively. It was found that the non-uniformity in the inner region of the photocathode is dominated by light reflections on the inner parts of the photosensors and the border regions contribute most to the observed non-uniformity.
Characterization of the Hamamatsu R11780 12 inch Photomultiplier Tube  [PDF]
J. Brack,B. Delgado,J. Dhooghe,J. Felde,B. Gookin,S. Grullon,J. R. Klein,R. Knapik,A. LaTorre,S. Seibert,K. Shapiro,R. Svoboda,L. Ware,R. Van Berg
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2013.02.022
Abstract: Future large water Cherenkov and scintillator detectors have been proposed for measurements of long baseline neutrino oscillations, proton decay, supernova and solar neutrinos. To ensure cost-effectiveness and optimize scientific reach, one of the critical requirements for such detectors are large-area, high performance photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). One candidate for such a device is the Hamamatsu R11780, a 12" PMT that is available in both standard and high quantum efficiency versions. Measurements of the single photoelectron response characteristics, relative efficiencies of the standard and high quantum efficiency versions, a preliminary measurement of the absolute quantum efficiency of the standard quantum efficiency version, and a two-dimensional scan of the relative efficiency across the photocathode surface are presented in this paper. All single photoelectron investigations were made using a Cherenkov light source at room temperature at a gain of 1*10^7. These results show that the R11780 PMT is a excellent candidate for such large optical detectors, including the peak-to-valley ratios greater than 2, transit time spreads around 1.3 ns, and late-pulsing probabilities less than 5%.
Measurements of wavelength-dependent double photoelectron emission from single photons in VUV-sensitive photomultiplier tubes  [PDF]
C. H. Faham,V. M. Gehman,A. Currie,A. Dobi,P. Sorensen,R. J. Gaitskell
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/2015/9/P09010
Abstract: Measurements of double photoelectron emission (DPE) probabilities as a function of wavelength are reported for Hamamatsu R8778, R8520, and R11410 VUV-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In DPE, a single photon strikes the PMT photocathode and produces two photoelectrons instead of a single one. It was found that the fraction of detected photons that result in DPE emission is a function of the incident photon wavelength, and manifests itself below $\sim$250 nm. For the xenon scintillation wavelength of 175 nm, a DPE probability of 18--24\% was measured depending on the tube and measurement method. This wavelength-dependent single photon response has implications for the energy calibration and photon counting of current and future liquid xenon detectors such as LUX, LZ, XENON100/1T, Panda-X and XMASS.
Progress in characterization of the Photomultiplier Tubes for XENON1T Dark Matter Experiment  [PDF]
Alexey Lyashenko,for the XENON collaboration
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We report on the progress in characterization of the Hamamatsu model R11410-21 Photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for XENON1T dark matter experiment. The absolute quantum efficiency (QE) of the PMT was measured at low temperatures down to -110 $^0$C (a typical the PMT operation temperature in liquid xenon detectors) in a spectral range from 154.5 nm to 400 nm. At -110 $^0$C the absolute QE increased by 10-15\% at 175 nm compared to that measured at room temperature. A new low power consumption, low radioactivity voltage divider for the PMTs is being developed. The measurement results showed that the PMT with the current version of the divider demonstrated a linear response (within 5\%) down to 5$\cdot$10$^4$ photoelectrons at a rate of 200 Hz. The radioactive contamination induced by the PMT and the PMT voltage divider materials satisfies the requirements for XENON1T detector not to exceed a total radioactive contamination in the detector of 0.5 evts/year/1tonn. Most of the PMTs received from the manufacturer showed a high quantum efficiency exceeding 30\%. In the mass production tests the measurements at room temperature showed clear single photoelectron peaks for all PMTs been under study. The optimal operation conditions were found at a gain of 2$\cdot$10$^6$. The operation stability for most of the PMTs was also demonstrated at a temperature of -100 $^0$C. A dedicated setup was built for testing the PMTs in liquid xenon using the XENON1T signal readout components including voltage dividers, cables and feedthroughs. The PMTs tested in liquid xenon demonstrated a stable operation for a time period of more than 5 months.
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