Abstract:
Symmetry protected and symmetry enriched topological phases of matter are of great interest in condensed matter physics due to new materials such as topological insulators. The Levin-Wen model for spin/boson systems is an important rigorously solvable model for studying $2D$ topological phases. The input data for the Levin-Wen model is a unitary fusion category, but the same model also works for unitary multi-fusion categories. In this paper, we provide the details for this extension of the Levin-Wen model, and show that the extended Levin-Wen model is a natural playground for the theoretical study of symmetry protected and symmetry enriched topological phases of matter.

Abstract:
We relate the ground state degeneracy (GSD) of a non-Abelian topological phase on a surface with boundaries to the anyon condensates that break the topological phase to a trivial phase. Specifically, we propose that gapped boundary conditions of the surface are in one-to-one correspondence to the sets of condensates, each being able to completely break the phase, and we substantiate this by examples. The GSD resulting from a particular boundary condition coincides with the number of confined topological sectors due to the corresponding condensation. These lead to a generalization of the Laughlin-Wu-Tao (LWT) charge-pumping argument for Abelian fractional quantum Hall states (FQHS) to encompass non-Abelian topological phases, in the sense that an anyon loop of a confined anyon winding a non-trivial cycle can pump a condensate from one boundary to another. Such generalized pumping may find applications in quantum control of anyons, eventually realizing topological quantum computation.

Abstract:
In Levin-Wen (LW) models, a wide class of exactly solvable discrete models, for two dimensional topological phases, it is relatively easy to describe single fluxon excitations, but not the charge and dyonic as well as many-fluxon excitations. To incorporate charged and dyonic excitations in (doubled) topological phases, a generalization of the LW models is proposed in this paper. We first enlarge the Hilbert space with adding a tail on one of the edges of each trivalent vertex, to describe its internal charge degrees of freedom. Then we study the full dyon spectrum of generalized LW models, including both quantum numbers and wave functions for dyonic quasiparticle excitations. The local operators associated with the dyonic excitations are shown to form the so-called Tube algebra, whose representations (modules) form the quantum double (categoric center) of the input data (unitary fusion category). In physically relevant cases, the input data is from a finite or quantum group (with braiding $R$-matrices), we find that the elementary excitations (or dyon species), as well as any localized/isolated excited states, are characterized by three quantum numbers: charge, fluxon type, and twist. They provide a "complete basis" for many-body states in the enlarged Hilbert space. Concrete examples are presented and the relevance of our results to the electric-magnetic duality is discussed.

Abstract:
Levin-Wen models are microscopic spin models for topological phases of matter in (2+1)-dimension. We introduce a generalization of such models to (3+1)-dimension based on unitary braided fusion categories, also known as unitary premodular categories. We discuss the ground state degeneracy on 3-manifolds and statistics of excitations which include both points and defect loops. Potential connections with recently proposed fractional topological insulators and projective ribbon permutation statistics are described.

Abstract:
Levin and Wen [Phys. Rev. B 71, 045110 (2005)] have recently given a lattice Hamiltonian description of doubled Chern-Simons theories. We relate the partition function of these theories to an expectation of Wilson loops that form a link in 2+1 dimensional spacetime known in the mathematical literature as Chain-Mail. This geometric construction gives physical interpretation of the Levin-Wen Hilbert space and Hamiltonian, its topological invariance, exactness under coarse-graining, and how two opposite chirality sectors of the doubled theory arise.

Abstract:
We remark on the claim that the string-net model of Levin and Wen is a microscopic Hamiltonian formulation of the Turaev-Viro topological quantum field theory. Using simple counterexamples we indicate where interesting extra structure may be needed in the Levin-Wen model for this to hold (however we believe that some form of the correspondence is true). In order to be accessible to the condensed matter community we provide a brief and gentle introduction to the relevant concepts in category theory (relying heavily on analogy with ordinary group representation theory). Likewise, some physical ideas are briefly surveyed for the benefit of the more mathematical reader. The main feature of group categories under consideration is Turaev's unimodality. We pinpoint where unimodality should fit into the Levin-Wen construction, and show that the simplest example fails to be unimodal. Unimodality is straightforward to compute for group categories, and we provide a complete classification at the end of the paper.

Abstract:
We demonstrate how the generalized Pauli exclusion principle emerges for quasiparticle excitations in 2d topological phases. As an example, we examine the Levin-Wen model with the Fibonacci data (specified in the text), and construct the number operator for fluxons living on plaquettes. By numerically counting the many-body states with fluxon number fixed, the matrix of exclusion statistics parameters is identified and is shown to depend on the spatial topology (sphere or torus) of the system. Our work reveals the structure of the (many-body) Hilbert space and some general features of thermodynamics for quasiparticle excitations in topological matter.

Abstract:
The 2+1 dimensional lattice models of Levin and Wen [PRB 71, 045110 (2005)] provide the most general known microscopic construction of topological phases of matter. Based heavily on the mathematical structure of category theory, many of the special properties of these models are not obvious. In the current paper, we present a geometrical space-time picture of the partition function of the Levin-Wen models which can be described as doubles (two copies with opposite chiralities) of underlying Anyon theories. Our space-time picture describes the partition function as a knot invariant of a complicated link, where both the lattice variables of the microscopic Levin-Wen model and the terms of the hamiltonian are represented as labeled strings of this link. This complicated link, previously studied in the mathematical literature, and known as Chain-Mail, can be related directly to known topological invariants of 3-manifolds such as the so called Turaev-Viro invariant and the Witten-Reshitikhin-Turaev invariant. We further consider quasi-particle excitations of the Levin-Wen models and we see how they can be understood by adding additional strings to the Chain-Mail link representing quasi-particle world-lines. Our construction gives particularly important new insight into how a doubled theory arises from these microscopic models.

Abstract:
Doubled topological phases introduced by Kitaev, Levin, and Wen supported on two-dimensional lattices are Hamiltonian versions of three-dimensional topological quantum field theories described by the Turaev-Viro state sum models. We introduce the latter with an emphasis on obtaining them from theories in the continuum. Equivalence of the previous models in the ground state is shown in case of the honeycomb lattice and the gauge group being a finite group by means of the well-known duality transformation between the group algebra and the spin network basis of lattice gauge theory. An analysis of the ribbon operators describing excitations in both types of models and the three-dimensional geometrical interpretation are given.

Abstract:
We review the key steps of the construction of Levin-Wen type of models on lattices with boundaries and defects of codimension 1,2,3 in a joint work with Alexei Kitaev. We emphasize some universal properties, such as boundary-bulk duality and duality-defect correspondence, shared by all these models. New results include a detailed analysis of the local properties of a boundary excitation and a conjecture on the functoriality of the monoidal center.