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Observation of Neutrons with a Gadolinium Doped Water Cerenkov Detector  [PDF]
S. Dazeley,A. Bernstein,N. S. Bowden,R. Svoboda
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2009.03.256
Abstract: Spontaneous and induced fission in Special Nuclear Material (SNM) such as 235U and 239Pu results in the emission of neutrons and high energy gamma-rays. The multiplicities of and time correlations between these particles are both powerful indicators of the presence of fissile material. Detectors sensitive to these signatures are consequently useful for nuclear material monitoring, search, and characterization. In this article, we demonstrate sensitivity to both high energy gamma-rays and neutrons with a water Cerenkov based detector. Electrons in the detector medium, scattered by gamma-ray interactions, are detected by their Cerenkov light emission. Sensitivity to neutrons is enhanced by the addition of a gadolinium compound to the water in low concentrations. Cerenkov light is similarly produced by an 8 MeV gamma-ray cascade following neutron capture on the gadolinium. The large solid angle coverage and high intrinsic efficiency of this detection approach can provide robust and low cost neutron and gamma-ray detection with a single device.
Research and Development for a Gadolinium Doped Water Cherenkov Detector  [PDF]
Andrew Renshaw
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: The proposed introduction of a soluble gadolinium (Gd) compound into water Cherenkov detectors can result in a high efficiency for the detection of free neutrons capturing on the Gd. The delayed 8 MeV gamma cascades produced by these captures, in coincidence with a prompt positron signal, serve to uniquely identify electron antineutrinos interacting via inverse beta decay. Such coincidence detection can reduce backgrounds, allowing a large Gd-enhanced water Cherenkov detector to make the first observation of supernova relic neutrinos and high precision measurements of Japan's reactor antineutrino flux, while still allowing for all current physics studies to be continued. Now, a dedicated Gd test facility is operating in the Kamioka Mine. This new facility houses everything needed to successfully operate a Gd doped water Cherenkov detector. Successful running of this facility will demonstrate that adding Gd salt to SK is both safe for the detector and is capable of delivering the expected physics benefits.
A Study of an Acrylic Cerenkov Radiation Detector  [PDF]
B. Porter,P. Auchincloss,P. de Barbaro,A. Bodek,H. Budd
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1119/1.19165
Abstract: An experiment investigating the angle of Cerenkov light emitted by 3-MeV electrons traversing an acrylic detector has been developed for use in the advanced physics laboratory course at the University of Rochester. In addition to exploring the experimental phenomena of Cerenkov radiation and total internal reflection, the experiment introduces students to several experimental techniques used in actual high energy and nuclear physics experiments, as well as to analysis techniques involving Poisson statistics. [to be published in Am. J. Phys. 67 (Oct/Nov 1999).]
Cerenkov Events Seen by The TALE Air Fluorescence Detector  [PDF]
Tareq Abu-Zayyad,Telescope-Array Collaboration
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The Telescope Array Low-Energy Extension (TALE) is a hybrid, Air Fluorescence Detector (FD) / Scintillator Array, designed to study cosmic ray initiated showers at energies above $\sim3\times10^{16}$ eV. Located in the western Utah desert, the TALE FD is comprised of 10 telescopes which cover the elevation range 31-58$^{\circ}$ in addition to 14 telescopes with elevation coverage of 3-31$^{\circ}$. As with all other FD's, a subset of the shower events recorded by TALE are ones for which the Cerenkov light produced by the shower particles dominates the total observed light signal. In fact, for the telescopes with higher elevation coverage, low energy Cerenkov events form the vast majority of triggered cosmic ray events. In the typical FD data analysis procedure, this subset of events is discarded and only events for which the majority of signal photons come from air fluorescence are kept. In this talk, I will report on a study to reconstruct the "Cerenkov Events" seen by the high elevation viewing telescopes of TALE. Monte Carlo studies and a first look at real events observed by TALE look very promising. Even as a monocular detector, the geometrical reconstruction method employed in this analysis allows for a pointing accuracy on the order of a degree. Preliminary Monte Carlo studies indicate that, the expected energy resolution is better than 25$%$. It may be possible to extend the low energy reach of TALE to below $10^{16}$ eV. This would be the first time a detector designed specifically as an air fluorescence detector is used as an imaging Cerenkov detector.
A Compact Gas Cerenkov Detector with Novel Optics  [PDF]
Michael Sivertz,Bruce Berger,Richard Ehrlich,John Bartlet,Steven Csorna,Vivek Jain,Szabolcs Marka,Kay Kinoshita,Paula Pomianowski
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(96)01073-X
Abstract: We discuss the design and performance of a threshold Cerenkov counter for identification of charged hadrons. The radiator is pressurized gas, which is contained in thin-walled cylindrical modules. A mirror system of novel design transports Cerenkov photons to photomultiplier tubes. This system is compact, contains relatively little material, and has a large fraction of active volume. A prototype of a module designed for the proposed CLEO III detector has been studied using cosmic rays. Results from these studies show good agreement with a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the module and indicate that it should achieve separation of pions and kaons at the 2.5-3.0sigma level in the momentum range 0.8-2.8 GeV/c. We predict performance for specific physics analyses using a GEANT-based simulation package.
Cerenkov angle and charge reconstruction with the RICH detector of the AMS experiment  [PDF]
F. Barao,L. Arruda,J. Borges,P. Goncalves,M. Pimenta,I. Perez
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(03)00294-8
Abstract: The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) will be equipped with a proximity focusing Ring Imaging Cerenkov (RICH) detector, for measurements of particle electric charge and velocity. In this note, two possible methods for reconstructing the Cerenkov angle and the electric charge with the RICH, are discussed. A Likelihood method for the Cerenkov angle reconstruction was applied leading to a velocity determination for protons with a resolution of around 0.1%. The existence of a large fraction of background photons which can vary from event to event, implied a charge reconstruction method based on an overall efficiency estimation on an event-by-event basis.
Gadolinium study for a water Cherenkov detector  [PDF]
Atsuko Kibayashi,for the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Modification of large water Cherenkov detectors by addition of gadolinium has been proposed. The large cross section for neutron capture on Gd will greatly improve the sensitivity to antielectron neutrinos from supernovae and reactors. A five-year project to build and develop a prototype detector based on Super-Kamiokande (SK) has started. We are performing various studies, including a material soak test in Gd solution, light attenuation length measurements, purification system development, and neutron tagging efficiency measurements using SK data and a Geant4-based simulation. We present an overview of the project and the recent R&D results.
A Water Tank Cerenkov Detector for Very High Energy Astroparticles  [PDF]
P. Bauleo,A. Etchegoyen,J. O. Fernandez Niello,A. M. J. Ferrero,A. Filevich,C. K. Guerard,F. Hasenbalg,M. A. Mostafa,D. Ravignani,J. Rodriguez Martino
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(97)01187-X
Abstract: Extensive airshower detection is an important issue in current astrophysics endeavours. Surface arrays detectors are a common practice since they are easy to handle and have a 100% duty cycle. In this work we present an experimental study of the parameters relevant to the design of a water Cerenkov detector for high energy airshowers. This detector is conceived as part of the surface array of the Pierre Auger Project, which is expected to be sensitive to ultra high energy cosmic rays. In this paper we focus our attention in the geometry of the tank and its inner liner material, discussing pulse shapes and charge collections.
The HERMES Dual-Radiator Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector  [PDF]
N. Akopov
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(01)00932-9
Abstract: The construction and use of a dual radiator Ring Imaging Cerenkov(RICH) detector is described. This instrument was developed for the HERMES experiment at DESY which emphasizes measurements of semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. It provides particle identification for pions, kaons, and protons in the momentum range from 2 to 15 GeV, which is essential to these studies. The instrument uses two radiators, C4F10, a heavy fluorocarbon gas, and a wall of silica aerogel tiles. The use of aerogel in a RICH detector has only recently become possible with the development of clear, large homogeneous and hydrophobic aerogel. A lightweight mirror was constructed using a newly perfected technique to make resin-coated carbon-fiber surfaces of optical quality. The photon detector consists of 1934 photomultiplier tubes for each detector half, held in a soft steel matrix to provide shielding against the residual field of the main spectrometer magnet.
Transparency of 0.2% GdCl3 Doped Water in a Stainless Steel Test Environment  [PDF]
W. Coleman,A. Bernstein,S. Dazeley,R. Svoboda
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2008.06.049
Abstract: The possibility of neutron and neutrino detection using water Cerenkov detectors doped with gadolinium holds the promise of constructing very large high-efficiency detectors with wide-ranging application in basic science and national security. This study addressed a major concern regarding the feasibility of such detectors: the transparency of the doped water to the ultraviolet Cerenkov light. We report on experiments conducted using a 19-meter water transparency measuring instrument and associated materials test tank. Sensitive measurements of the transparency of water doped with 0.2% GdCl3 at 337nm, 400nm and 420nm were made using this instrument. These measurements indicate that GdCl3 is not an appropriate dopant in stainless steel constructed water Cerenkov detectors.
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