Abstract:
We study the dissociation of Feshbach molecules in ultracold Fermi gases with spin-orbit (SO) coupling. Since SO coupling can induce quantum transition between the Feshbach molecules and the fully polarized Fermi gas, the Feshbach molecules can be dissociated by the SO coupling. We experimentally realized this new type of dissociation in ultracold gases of 40K atoms with SO coupling created by Raman beams, and observed that the dissociation rate is highly non-monotonic on both the positive and negative Raman-detuning sides. Our results show that the dissociation of Feshbach molecules can be controlled by new degrees of freedoms, i.e., the SO-coupling intensity or the momenta of the Raman beams, as well as the detuning of the Raman beams.

Abstract:
We address the phase of a highly polarized Fermi gas across a narrow Feshbach resonance starting from the problem of a single down spin fermion immersed in a Fermi sea of up spins. Both polaron and pairing states are considered using the variational wave function approach, and we find that the polaron to pairing transition will take place at the BCS side of the resonance, strongly in contrast to a wide resonance where the transition is located at the BEC side. For pairing phase, we find out the critical strength of repulsive interaction between pairs above which the mixture of pairs and fermions will not phase separate. Therefore, nearby a narrow resonance, it is quite likely that magnetism can coexist with s-wave BCS superfluidity at large Zeeman field, which is a remarkable property absent in conventional BCS superconductors (or fermion pair superfluids).

Abstract:
In this letter we consider the superradiant phase transition of a two-component Fermi gas in a cavity across a Feshbach resonance. It is known that quantum statistics plays a crucial role for the superradiant phase transition in atomic gases; in contrast to bosons, in a Fermi gas this transition exhibits strong density dependence. We show that across a Feshbach resonance, while the two-component Fermi gas passes through the BEC-BCS crossover, the superradiant phase transition undergoes a corresponding crossover from a fermionic behavior on the weakly interacting BCS side, to a bosonic behavior on the molecular BEC side. This intricate statistics crossover makes the superradiance maximally enhanced either in the unitary regime for low densities, in the BCS regime for moderate densities close to Fermi surface nesting, or in the BEC regime for high densities.

Abstract:
In this letter a generalization of the BEC-BCS crossover theory to a multicomponent superfluid is presented by studying a three-species mixture of Fermi gas across two Feshbach resonances. At the BEC side of resonances, two kinds of molecules are stable which gives rise to a two-component Bose condensate. This two-component superfluid state can be experimentally identified from the radio-frequency spectroscopy, density profile and short noise measurements. As approaching the BCS side of resonances, the superfluidity will break down at some point and yield a first-order quantum phase transition to normal state, due to the mismatch of three Fermi surfaces. Phase separation instability will occur around the critical regime.

Abstract:
Ultracold gases of interacting spin-orbit coupled fermions are predicted to display exotic phenomena such as topological superfluidity and its associated Majorana fermions. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a route to strongly-interacting single-component atomic Fermi gases by combining an s-wave Feshbach resonance (giving strong interactions) and spin-orbit coupling (creating an effective p-wave channel). We identify the Feshbach resonance by its associated atomic loss feature and show that, in agreement with our single-channel scattering model, this feature is preserved and shifted as a function of the spin-orbit coupling parameters.

Abstract:
We theoretically investigate a Rashba spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas near Feshbach resonances, by using mean-field theory and a two-channel model that takes into account explicitly Feshbach molecules in the close channel. In the absence of spin-orbit coupling, when the channel coupling $g$ between the closed and open channels is strong, it is widely accepted that the two-channel model is equivalent to a single-channel model that excludes Feshbach molecules. This is the so-called broad resonance limit, which is well-satisfied by ultracold atomic Fermi gases of $^{6}$Li atoms and $^{40}$K atoms in current experiments. Here, with Rashba spin-orbit coupling we find that the condition for equivalence becomes much more stringent. As a result, the single-channel model may already be insufficient to describe properly an atomic Fermi gas of $^{40}$K atoms at a moderate spin-orbit coupling. We determine a characteristic channel coupling strength $g_{c}$ as a function of the spin-orbit coupling strength, above which the single-channel and two-channel models are approximately equivalent. We also find that for narrow resonance with small channel coupling, the pairing gap and molecular fraction is strongly suppressed by SO coupling. Our results can be readily tested in $^{40}$K atoms by using optical molecular spectroscopy.

Abstract:
We propose a coherent framework allowing to deal with many-body effects in dense ultracold Fermi gases in the presence of a Feshbach resonance. We show that the simple effect of Pauli exclusion induces a strong modification of the basic scattering properties, leading in particular to an energy dependence of the effective scattering length on the scale of the chemical potential. This results in a smearing of the Feshbach resonance and provides a natural explanation for recent experimental findings.

Abstract:
We theoretically investigate the momentum-resolved radio-frequency spectroscopy of a harmonically trapped atomic Fermi gas near a Feshbach resonance in the presence of equal Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. The system is qualitatively modeled as an ideal gas mixture of atoms and molecules, in which the properties of molecules, such as the wavefunction, binding energy and effective mass, are determined from the two-particle solution of two-interacting atoms. We calculate separately the radio-frequency response from atoms and molecules at finite temperatures by using the standard Fermi golden rule, and take into account the effect of harmonic traps within local density approximation. The total radio-frequency spectroscopy is discussed, as functions of temperature and spin-orbit coupling strength. Our results give a qualitative picture of radio-frequency spectroscopy of a resonantly interacting spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas and can be directly tested in atomic Fermi gases of K40 atoms at Shanxi University and of Li6 atoms at MIT.

Abstract:
We present an overview of recent developments in species-imbalanced ("polarized") Feshbach-resonant Fermi gases. We summarize the current status of thermodynamics of these systems in terms of a phase diagram as a function of the Feshbach resonance detuning, polarization and temperature. We review instabilities of the s-wave superfluidity across the BEC-BCS crossover to phase separation, FFLO states, polarized molecular superfluidity and the normal state, driven by the species imbalance. We discuss different models and approximations of this system and compare their predictions to current experiments.

Abstract:
Interacting Fermi gases with spin-orbit coupling are responsible for many intriguing phenomena such as topological superfluids and Majorana fermions. Here we characterize theoretically fermionic pairing in a strongly interacting spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas, by using momentum-resolved radio-frequency spectroscopy. We develop a strong-coupling $T$-matrix theory and present a phase diagram near the unitary resonance limit. A smooth transition from atomic to molecular responses in the momentum-resolved spectroscopy is predicted, with a clear signature of anisotropic pairing at and below resonance. Our prediction with many-body pairing can be directly tested in a spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas of $^{40}$K or $^{6}$Li atoms near broad Feshbach resonances.