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Infrared Emission of Normal Galaxies from 2.5 to 12 Microns: ISO Spectra, Near-Infrared Continuum and Mid-Infrared Emission Features  [PDF]
Nanyao Lu,George Helou,Michael W. Werner,Harriet L. Dinerstein,Daniel A. Dale,Nancy A. Silbermann,Sangeeta Malhotra,Charles A. Beichman,Thomas H. Jarrett
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/374043
Abstract: We present ISO-PHOT spectra of the regions 2.5-4.9um and 5.8-11.6um for a sample of 45 disk galaxies from the U.S. ISO Key Project on Normal Galaxies. The spectra can be decomposed into three spectral components: (1) continuum emission from stellar photospheres, which dominates the near-infrared (2.5- 4.9um; NIR) spectral region; (2) a weak NIR excess continuum, which has a color temperature of ~ 1000K, carries a luminosity of a few percent of the total far-infrared luminosity L(FIR), and most likely arises from the ISM; and (3) the well-known broad emission features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3 um, which are generally attributed to aromatic carbon particles. These aromatic features in emission (AFEs) dominate the mid-infrared (5.8-11.6 um; MIR) part of the spectrum, and resemble the so-called Type-A spectra observed in many non-stellar sources and the diffuse ISM in our own Galaxy. The relative strengths of the AFEs vary by 15-25% among the galaxies. However, little correlation is seen between these variations and either IRAS 60um-to-100um flux density ratio R(60/100) or the FIR-to-blue luminosity ratio L(FIR)/L(B), suggesting that the observed variations are not a direct consequence of the radiation field differences among the galaxies. We demonstrate that the NIR excess continuum and AFE emission are correlated, suggesting that they are produced by similar mechanisms and similar (or the same) material. On the other hand, as the current star-formation activity increases, the overall strengths of the AFEs and the NIR excess continuum drop significantly with respect to that of the far-infrared emission from large dust grains. This is likely a consequence of the preferential destruction in intense radiation fields of the small carriers responsible for the NIR/AFE emission.
The near-infrared broad emission line region of active galactic nuclei. II. The one-micron continuum  [PDF]
Hermine Landt,Martin Elvis,Martin J. Ward,Misty C. Bentz,Kirk T. Korista,Margarita Karovska
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18383.x
Abstract: We use quasi-simultaneous near-infrared (near-IR) and optical spectroscopy from four observing runs to study the continuum around 1 micron in 23 well-known broad-emission line active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that, after correcting the optical spectra for host galaxy light, the AGN continuum around this wavelength can be approximated by the sum of mainly two emission components, a hot dust blackbody and an accretion disc. The accretion disc spectrum appears to dominate the flux at ~1 micron, which allows us to derive a relation for estimating AGN black hole masses based on the near-IR virial product. This result also means that a near-IR reverberation programme can determine the AGN state independent of simultaneous optical spectroscopy. On average we derive hot dust blackbody temperatures of ~1400 K, a value close to the sublimation temperature of silicate dust grains, and relatively low hot dust covering factors of ~7%. Our preliminary variability studies indicate that in most sources the hot dust emission responds to changes in the accretion disc flux with the expected time lag, however, a few sources show a behaviour that can be attributed to dust destruction.
Near-Infrared H2 and Continuum Survey of Extended Green Objects  [PDF]
Hsu-Tai Lee,Michihiro Takami,Hao-Yuan Duan,Jennifer Karr,Yu-Nung Su,Sheng-Yuan Liu,Dirk Froebrich,Cosmos C. Yeh
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/200/1/2
Abstract: The Spitzer GLIMPSE survey has revealed a number of "Extended Green Objects" (EGOs) which display extended emission at 4.5 micron. These EGOs are potential candidates for high mass protostellar outflows. We have used high resolution (< 1") H2 1-0 S(1) line, K, and H-band images from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope to study 34 EGOs to investigate their nature. We found that 12 EGOs exhibit H2 outflows (two with chains of H2 knotty structures; five with extended H2 bipolar structures; three with extended H2 lobes; two with pairs of H2 knots). In the 12 EGOs with H2 outflows, three of them exhibit similar morphologies between the 4.5 micron and H2 emission. However, the remaining 9 EGOs show that the H2 features are more extended than the continuum features, and the H2 emission is seldom associated with continuum emission. Furthermore, the morphologies of the near-infrared continuum and 4.5 micron emission are similar to each other for those EGOs with K-band emission, implying that at least a part of the IRAC-band continuum emission of EGOs comes from scattered light from the embedded YSOs.
A near-infrared excess in the continuum of high-redshift galaxies: a tracer of star formation and circumstellar disks?  [PDF]
E. Mentuch,R. G. Abraham,K. Glazebrook,P. J. McCarthy,H. Yan,D. V. O'Donnell,D. Le Borgne,S. Savaglio,D. Crampton,R. Murowinski,S. Juneau,R. G. Carlberg,I. Jorgensen,K. Roth,H. Chen,R. O. Marzke
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/706/2/1020
Abstract: A broad continuum excess in the near-infrared, peaking in the rest-frame at 2-5 micron, is detected in a spectroscopic sample of 88 galaxies at 0.5
Spectro-interferometry of the Be star delta Sco: Near-Infrared Continuum and Gas Emission Region Sizes in 2007  [PDF]
R. Millan-Gabet,J. D. Monnier,Y. Touhami,D. Gies,E. Hesselbach,E. Pedretti,N. Thureau,M. Zhao,T. ten Brummelaar
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/723/1/544
Abstract: We present near-infrared H and K-band spectro-interferometric observations of the gaseous disk around the primary Be star in the delta Sco binary system, obtained in 2007 (between periastron passages in 2000 and 2011). Observations using the CHARA/MIRC instrument at H-band resolve an elongated disk with a Gaussian FWHM 1.18 x 0.91 mas. Using the Keck Interferometer, the source of the K-band continuum emission is only marginally spatially resolved, and consequently we estimate a relatively uncertain K-band continuum disk FWHM of 0.7 +/- 0.3 mas. Line emission on the other hand, He1 (2.0583 micron) and Br gamma (2.1657 micron), is clearly detected, with about 10% lower visibilities than those of the continuum. When taking into account the continuum/line flux ratio this translates into much larger sizes for the line emission regions: 2.2 +/- 0.4 mas and 1.9 +/- 0.3 mas for He1 and Br gamma respectively. Our KI data also reveal a relatively flat spectral differential phase response, ruling out significant off-center emission. We expect these new measurements will help constrain dynamical models being actively developed in order to explain the disk formation process in the delta Sco system and Be stars in general.
Effect of the Continuum Removal in Predicting Soil Organic Carbon with Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) in the Senegal Sahelian Soils  [PDF]
Macoumba Loum, Mateugue Diack, Ndeye Yacine Badiane Ndour, Dominique Masse
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2016.69014
Abstract: Spectroscopy plays a major role in the access of the analytical parameters of the soil. It tends to substitute the conventional laboratory analysis because hyperspectral data were least expensive and easier to obtain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the continuum removal (CR) in the validation of the accurate prediction model of the soil properties with Vis-NIR spectroscopy data. Few studies using Vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy have well focused the calculation of the CR method; its effect in the calibration of the accurate models was also not well emphasized. In this study, we used the remote sensing software ENVI 4.7 to compute the CR function where the value of the continuum for each sample and for each spectral wavelength was obtained by dividing the reflectance values of the full spectrum (FS) with those of the continuum curve (CC). The partial least square regression (PLSR) model was applied in the spectral data from the soil of the Senegal Sahelian region. It was calibrated with both data from the full spectrum (FS) and those obtained after the application of the continuum removal. With the application of the CR, ultraviolet wavelengths (350 - 429 nm) and those of near infrared (2491 - 2500 nm) were removed from the explanatory variables of PLSR model. With the FS, all wavelengths between 350 and 2500 nm were taken into account in predicting soil properties. Our findings show a positive effect of the application of CR in the estimation of soil organic carbon. In calibration, the R2 increased up to 10% with the continuum removal in the model of 12 components (CP). In terms of validation, it’s the 15-component model which is the most accurate with the same range in calibration between the FS and the CR. The lowest RMSE ranged from 0.04 with the FS to 0.03 with the application of the CR in calibration and validation. These results show that the interest of this study as soil organic carbon is recognized as a key indicator of fertility of the soil in Sahelian-African regions. For future studies, it’s important to apply the model of neural networks to better evaluate the effect of continuum removal in predicting soil properties from the spectral data and other methods of preprocessing like the multiplicative scatter correction (msc).
Optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of the black hole GX 339-4: I. A focus on the continuum in the low/hard and high/soft states  [PDF]
F. Rahoui,M. Coriat,S. Corbel,M. Cadolle Bel,J. A. Tomsick,J. C. Lee,J. Rodriguez,D. M. Russell,S. Migliari
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20763.x
Abstract: The microquasar GX 339-4, known to exhibit powerful compact jets that dominate its radio to near-infrared emission, entered an outburst in 2010 for the fifth time in about fifteen years. An extensive radio to X-ray multi-wavelength campaign was immediately triggered, and we report here on ESO/FORS2+ISAAC optical and near-infrared spectroscopic observations, supported by ATCA radio and RXTE/Swift X-ray quasi-simultaneous data. GX 339-4 was observed at three different epochs, once in the soft state and twice in the hard state. In the soft state, the optical and near-infrared continuum is largely consistent with the Raleigh-Jeans tail of a thermal process. As an explanation, we favour irradiation of the outer accretion disc by its inner regions, enhanced by disc warping. An excess is also present at low frequencies, likely due to a M subgiant companion star. During the first hard state, the optical/near-infrared continuum is well-described by the optically thin synchrotron emission of the compact jet combined with disc irradiation and perhaps another component peaking in the ultraviolet. The spectral break where the jet transits from the optically thick to thin regimes, located below 1.20e14 Hz, is not detected and the extension of the optically thin synchrotron is consistent with the 3-50 keV spectrum. In contrast, the emission during the second hard state is more difficult to understand and points toward a more complex jet continuum. In both cases, the near-infrared continuum is found to be variable at timescales at least as short as 20 s, although these variabilities are smoothed out beyond a few hundred seconds. This implies rapid variations - in flux and frequency - of the location of the spectral break, i.e. dramatic short timescale changes of the physical conditions at the base of the jet, such as the magnetic field and/or the base radius.
Near-infrared H2 and Continuum Survey of Extended Green Objects. II. Complete Census for the Northern Galactic Plane  [PDF]
Hsu-Tai Lee,Wei-Ting Laio,Dirk Froebrich,Jennifer Karr,Georgios Ioannidis,Yong-Hyun Lee,Yu-Nung Su,Sheng-Yuan Liu,Hao-Yuan Duan,Michihiro Takami
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/208/2/23
Abstract: We discuss 94 Extended Green Objects (EGOs) in the northern Galactic plane cataloged by Cyganowski et al, based on near-infrared narrowband H2 (2.122 {\mu}m and continuum observations from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. This data set is three times larger than our previous study, and is unbiased by preselection. As discussed in the previous paper, the morphologies of the 4.5 {\mu}m emission generally resemble those of the near-infrared continuum, but are different from those of the H2 emission. Of our sample, only 28% of EGOs with H2 emission show similar morphologies between 4.5 {\mu}m and H2 emission. These results suggest that the 4.5 {\mu}m emission mainly comes from scattered continuum from the embedded young stellar object (YSO), and partially from H2 emission. About half of EGOs are associated with H2 outflows, if the H2 outflow incompleteness is considered. The H2 outflow detection rate for EGOs with K-band detections (61%) is significantly higher than for those without K-band detections (36%). This difference may be due to the fact that both H2 and K-band emissions are associated with outflows, i.e., H2 emission and K-band continuum are associated with shocks and outflow cavities, respectively. We also compared the correlation between the H2 outflows and Class I 44 GHz methanol masers from literature. The methanol masers can be located upstream or downstream of the H2 outflows and some bright H2 spots or outflows are not associated with methanol masers, suggesting that methanol masers and H2 emission trace different excitation conditions.
The Near- and Mid-Infrared Continuum Emission of Seyfert Nuclei: Constraints on the Models of Obscuring Tori  [PDF]
Dario Fadda,Giuliano Giuricin,Gian Luigi Granato,Donatella Vecchies
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/305352
Abstract: For an extended sample of Seyfert galaxies we compile from the literature the infrared fluxes in the four IRAS bands, the ground-based small-beam (~ 5-10") fluxes in the standard Q, N, M, L (or L') bands, and the nuclear (non-stellar) estimated fluxes in the JHK bands. We estimate nuclear fluxes in the L band by applying a correction for stellar light. From the statistical study of the infrared colors and luminosities, we derive the typical SEDs of Seyfert 1 and 2 nuclei and the typical differences in luminosities between the two types of objects in the mid- and near-infrared spectral ranges. The observational data appear to severely challenge many models of dusty tori, which hardly account for the shapes of the SEDs and the degree of anisotropy observed in Seyfert galaxies. In particular, at variance with some earlier claims, very thick and compact tori are basically inconsistent with these observational constraints. The most successful models, though having problems in accounting for several details, can fit the major infrared observational data of both Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 nuclei with tori which extend up to several hundreds pc and have fairly low optical thickness.
Variation in sunspot properties between 1999 and 2011 as observed with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter  [PDF]
R. Rezaei,C. Beck,W. Schmidt
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201118635
Abstract: We study the variation in the magnetic field strength and the umbral intensity of sunspots during the declining phase of the solar cycle no.23 and in the beginning of cycle no.24. We analyze a sample of 183 sunspots observed from 1999 until 2011 with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. The magnetic field strength is derived from the Zeeman splitting of the Stokes-V signal in one near-infrared spectral line, either Fe I 1564.8 nm, Fe I 1089.6 nm, or Si I 1082.7 nm. This avoids the effects of the unpolarized stray light from the field-free quiet Sun surroundings. The minimum umbral continuum intensity and umbral area are also measured. We find that there is a systematic trend for sunspots in the late stage of the solar cycle no.23 to be weaker, i.e., to have a smaller maximum magnetic field strength than those at the start of the cycle. The decrease in the field strength with time of about 94 G/yr is well beyond the statistical fluctuations that would be expected because of the larger number of sunspots close to cycle maximum (14 G/yr). In the same time interval, the continuum intensity of the umbra increases with a rate of 1.3 (+- 0.4)% of Ic/yr, while the umbral area does not show any trend above the statistical variance. Sunspots in the new cycle no.24 show higher field strengths and lower continuum intensities than those at the end of cycle no.23, interrupting the trend. Sunspots have an intrinsically weaker field strength and brighter umbrae at the late stages of solar cycles compared to their initial stages, without any significant change in their area. The abrupt increase in field strength in sunspots of the new cycle suggests that the cyclic variations are dominating over any long-term trend that continues across cycles. We find a slight decrease in field strength and an increase in intensity as a long-term trend across the cycles.
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