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Massive black holes in stellar systems: 'quiescent' accretion and luminosity  [PDF]
Marta Volonteri,Massimo Dotti,Duncan Campbell,Mario Mateo
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/730/2/145
Abstract: Only a small fraction of local galaxies harbor an accreting black hole, classified as an active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, many stellar systems are plausibly expected to host black holes, from globular clusters to nuclear star clusters, to massive galaxies. The mere presence of stars in the vicinity of a black hole provides a source of fuel via mass loss of evolved stars. In this paper we assess the expected luminosities of black holes embedded in stellar systems of different sizes and properties, spanning a large range of masses. We model the distribution of stars and derive the amount of gas available to a central black hole through a geometrical model. We estimate the luminosity of the black holes under simple, but physically grounded, assumptions on the accretion flow. Finally we discuss the detectability of 'quiescent' black holes in the local Universe.
Supermassive Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei. I. The Consistency of Black Hole Masses in Quiescent and Active Galaxies  [PDF]
Laura Ferrarese,Richard W. Pogge,Bradley M. Peterson,David Merritt,Amri Wandel,Charles L. Joseph
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/322528
Abstract: We report the first results of a program to measure accurate stellar velocity dispersions in the bulges of the host galaxies of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for which accurate black hole (BH) masses have been determined via reverberation mapping. We find good agreement between BH masses obtained from reverberation mapping, and from the M(BH) - sigma relation as defined by quiescent galaxies, indicating a common relationship between active and quiescent black holes and their large-scale environments.
Black Holes and Hosts of Active and Quiescent Galaxies: I. The Black Hole-Bulge Relation revisited  [PDF]
Amri Wandel
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/338134
Abstract: Massive Black Holes detected in the centers of many nearby galaxies show an approximately linear relation with the luminosity of the host bulge, with the black hole mass being 0.001-0.002 of the bulge mass. Previous work suggested that black holes of active (Seyfert 1) galaxies follow a similar relation, but apparently with a significantly lower value of $M_{\rm BH}/M_{\rm bulge}$ (Wandel 1999). New data show that this difference was mainly due to overestimating the black hole mass in quiescent galaxies and overestimating the bulge magnitude of Seyfert galaxies. Using new and updated data we show that AGNs (Seyfert galaxies and quasars) follow the same BH-bulge relation as ordinary (inactive) galaxies. We derive the BH-bulge relation for a sample of 55 AGNs and 35 quiescent galaxies, finding that broad line AGNs have an average black hole/bulge mass fraction of $\sim 0.0015$ with a strong correlation (Mbh ~ Lbulge^{0.9\pm 0.16}). This BH-bulge relation is consistent with the BH-bulge relation of quiescent galaxies and much tighter than previous results. Narrow line AGNs appear to have a lower ratio, Mbh/Mbulge ~ 10^{-4}-10^{-3}. We find this to be a more general feature, the BH/bulge ratio in AGNs being inversely correlated with the emission-line width, implying a strong linear relation between the size of the broad emission line region and the luminosity of the bulge. Finally, combining AGNs with observed and estimated stellar velocity dispersion, we find a significant correlation (Mbh ~ v^{3.5-5}), consistent with that of quiescent galaxies.
New evidence for a massive black hole at the centre of the quiescent galaxy M32  [PDF]
R. P. van der Marel,P. T. de Zeeuw,H. W. Rix,G. D. Quinlan
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1038/385610a0
Abstract: Massive black holes are thought to reside at the centres of many galaxies, where they power quasars and active galactic nuclei. But most galaxies are quiescent, indicating that any central massive black hole present will be starved of fuel and therefore detectable only through its gravitational influence on the motions of the surrounding stars. M32 is a nearby, quiescent elliptical galaxy in which the presence of a black hole has been suspected; however, the limited resolution of the observational data and the restricted classes of models used to interpret this data have made it difficult to rule out alternative explanations, such as models with an anisotropic stellar velocity distribution and no dark mass or models with a central concentration of dark objects (for example, stellar remnants or brown dwarfs). Here we present high-resolution optical HST spectra of M32, which show that the stellar velocities near the centre of this galaxy exceed those inferred from previous ground-based observations. We use a range of general dynamical models to determine a central dark mass concentration of (3.4 +/- 1.6) x 10^6 solar masses, contained within a region only 0.3 pc across. This leaves a massive black hole as the most plausible explanation of the data, thereby strengthening the view that such black holes exist even in quiescent galaxies.
The `quiescent' black hole in M87  [PDF]
C. S. Reynolds,T. Di Matteo,A. C. Fabian,U. Hwang,C. R. Canizares
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/283.4.111
Abstract: It is believed that most giant elliptical galaxies possess nuclear black holes with masses in excess of $10^8\Msun$. Bondi accretion from the interstellar medium might then be expected to produce quasar-like luminosities from the nuclei of even quiescent elliptical galaxies. It is a puzzle that such luminosities are not observed. Motivated by this problem, Fabian & Rees have recently suggested that the final stages of accretion in these objects occurs in an advection-dominated mode with a correspondingly small radiative efficiency. Despite possessing a long-known active nucleus and dynamical evidence for a black hole, the low radiative and kinetic luminosities of the core of M87 provide the best illustration of this problem. We examine an advection-dominated model for the nucleus of M87 and show that accretion at the Bondi rate is compatible with the best known estimates for the core flux from radio through to X-ray wavelengths. The success of this model prompts us to propose that FR-I radio galaxies and quiescent elliptical galaxies accrete in an advection dominated mode whereas FR-II type radio-loud nuclei possess radiatively efficient thin accretion disks.
The Stellar Black Hole  [PDF]
Kenneth Dalton
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2018.44037
Abstract: A black hole model is proposed in which a neutron star is surrounded by a neutral gas of electrons and positrons. The gas is in a completely degenerate quantum state and does not radiate. The pressure and density in the gas are found to be much less than those in the neutron star. The radius of the black hole is far greater than the Schwarzschild radius.
Relationship between star formation rate and black hole accretion at z=2: The different contributions in quiescent, normal and starburst galaxies  [PDF]
G. Rodighiero,M. Brusa,E. Daddi,M. Negrello,J. R. Mullaney,I. Delvecchio,D. Lutz,A. Renzini,A. Franceschini,I. Baronchelli,F. Pozzi,C. Gruppioni,V. Strazzullo,A. Cimatti,J. Silverman
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/800/1/L10
Abstract: We investigate the co-evolution of black-hole-accretion-rate (BHAR) and star-formation-rate (SFR) in $1.5
The Doubling of Stellar Black Hole Nuclei  [PDF]
Mher V. Kazandjian,Jihad R. Touma
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt074
Abstract: It is strongly believed that Andromeda's double nucleus signals a disk of stars revolving around its central super-massive black hole on eccentric Keplerian orbits with nearly aligned apsides. A self-consistent stellar dynamical origin for such apparently long-lived alignment has so far been lacking, with indications that cluster self-gravity is capable of sustaining such lopsided configurations if and when stimulated by external perturbations. Here, we present results of N-body simulations which show unstable counter-rotating stellar clusters around super-massive black holes saturating into uniformly precessing lopsided nuclei. The double nucleus in our featured experiment decomposes naturally into a thick eccentric disk of apo-apse aligned stars which is embedded in a lighter triaxial cluster. The eccentric disk reproduces key features of Keplerian disk models of Andromeda's double nucleus; the triaxial cluster has a distinctive kinematic signature which is evident in HST observations of Andromeda's double nucleus, and has been difficult to reproduce with Keplerian disks alone. Our simulations demonstrate how the combination of eccentric disk and triaxial cluster arises naturally when a star cluster accreted over a pre-existing and counter-rotating disk of stars, drives disk and cluster into a mutually destabilizing dance. Such accretion events are inherent to standard galaxy formation scenarios. They are here shown to double stellar black hole nuclei as they feed them.
The black hole mass - stellar velocity dispersion relation of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies  [PDF]
Jong-Hak Woo,Yosep Yoon,Songyoun Park,Daeseong Park,Sang Chul Kim
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/801/1/38
Abstract: Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) are arguably one of the key AGN subclasses in investigating the origin of the black hole mass - stellar velocity dispersion (M-sigma) relation because of their high accretion rate and significantly low black hole mass. Currently, it is under discussion whether present-day NLS1s offset from the M-sigma relation. Using the directly measured stellar velocity dispersion of 93 NLS1s at z<0.1, and black hole mass estimates based on the updated mass estimators, we investigate the M-sigma relation of NLS1s in comparison with broad-line AGNs. We find no strong evidence that the NLS1s deviates from the M-sigma relation, which is defined by reverberation-mapped type 1 AGNs and quiescent galaxies. However, there is a clear trend of the offset with the host galaxy morphology, i.e., more inclined galaxies toward the line-of-sight have higher stellar velocity dispersion, suggesting that the rotational broadening plays a role in measuring stellar velocity dispersion based on the single-aperture spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In addition, we provide the virial factor log f = $0.05 \pm 0.12$ (f = 1.12), for black hole mass estimators based on the FWHM of H$\beta$, by jointly fitting the M-sigma relation using quiescent galaxies and reverberation-mapped AGNs.
Spectrally resolved flares in the quiescent black hole V404 Cyg  [PDF]
R. I. Hynes,P. A. Charles,C. Zurita,J. Casares,C. A. Haswell,D. A. Lott
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We present a spectrophotometric study of short-term optical variability in the quiescent black hole X-ray transient V404 Cyg focusing on two nights of Halpha spectroscopy. We find significant variability, with both the Halpha line and the continuum varying in a correlated way. This includes both dramatic flares lasting a few hours in which the line flux nearly doubles and lower-level flickering. The strongest flares involve development of asymmetry in the line profile, with the red wing usually strongest independent of orbital phase. Based on the line profile changes during the flares, we conclude that the most likely origin for the variability is variable photoionisation by the central source.
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