Abstract:
Assuming the separable augmented density, it is always possible to construct a distribution function of a spherical population with any given density and anisotropy. We consider under what conditions the distribution constructed as such is in fact non-negative everywhere in the accessible phase-space. We first generalize known necessary conditions on the augmented density using fractional calculus. The condition on the radius part R(r^2) (whose logarithmic derivative is the anisotropy parameter) is equivalent to the complete monotonicity of R(1/w)/w. The condition on the potential part on the other hand is given by its derivative up to any order not greater than (3/2-beta) being non-negative where beta is the central anisotropy parameter. We also derive a specialized inversion formula for the distribution from the separable augmented density, which leads to sufficient conditions on separable augmented densities for the non-negativity of the distribution. The last generalizes the similar condition derived earlier for the generalized Cuddeford system to arbitrary separable systems.

Abstract:
Under the separability assumption on the augmented density, a distribution function can be always constructed for a spherical population with the specified density and anisotropy profile. Then, a question arises, under what conditions the distribution constructed as such is non-negative everywhere in the entire accessible subvolume of the phase-space. We rediscover necessary conditions on the augmented density expressed with fractional calculus. The condition on the radius part R(r^2) -- whose logarithmic derivative is the anisotropy parameter -- is equivalent to R(1/w)/w being a completely monotonic function whereas the condition on the potential part is stated as its derivative up to the order not greater than 3/2-b being non-negative (where b is the central limiting value for the anisotropy parameter). We also derive the set of sufficient conditions on the separable augmented density for the non-negativity of the distribution, which generalizes the condition derived for the generalized Cuddeford system by Ciotti & Morganti to arbitrary separable systems. This is applied for the case when the anisotropy is parameterized by a monotonic function of the radius of Baes & Van Hese. The resulting criteria are found based on the complete monotonicity of generalized Mittag-Leffler functions.

Abstract:
This paper presents a set of new conditions on the augmented density of a spherical anisotropic system that is necessary for the underlying two-integral phase-space distribution function to be non-negative. In particular, it is shown that the partial derivatives of the Abel transformations of the augmented density must be non-negative. Applied for the separable augmented densities, this recovers the result of van Hese et al. (2011).

Abstract:
Recently, some intriguing results have lead to speculations whether the central density slope -- velocity dispersion anisotropy inequality (An & Evans) actually holds at all radii for spherical dynamical systems. We extend these studies by providing a complete analysis of the global slope -- anisotropy inequality for all spherical systems in which the augmented density is a separable function of radius and potential. We prove that these systems indeed satisfy the global inequality if their central anisotropy is $\beta_0\leq 1/2$. Furthermore, we present several systems with $\beta_0 > 1/2$ for which the inequality does not hold, thus demonstrating that the global density slope -- anisotropy inequality is not a universal property. This analysis is a significant step towards an understanding of the relation for general spherical systems.

Abstract:
Following the seminal result of An & Evans, known as the central density slope-anisotropy theorem, successive investigations unexpectedly revealed that the density slope-anisotropy inequality holds not only at the center, but at all radii in a very large class of spherical systems whenever the phase-space distribution function is positive. In this paper we derive a criterion that holds for all spherical systems in which the augmented density is a separable function of radius and potential: this new finding allows to unify all the previous results in a very elegant way, and opens the way for more general investigations. As a first application, we prove that the global density slope-anisotropy inequality is also satisfied by all the explored additional families of multi-component stellar systems. The present results, and the absence of known counter-examples, lead us to conjecture that the global density slope-anisotropy inequality could actually be a universal property of spherical systems with positive distribution function.

Abstract:
In this paper we study decomposition methods based on separable approximations for minimizing the augmented Lagrangian. In particular, we study and compare the Diagonal Quadratic Approximation Method (DQAM) of Mulvey and Ruszczy\'{n}ski and the Parallel Coordinate Descent Method (PCDM) of Richt\'arik and Tak\'a\v{c}. We show that the two methods are equivalent for feasibility problems up to the selection of a single step-size parameter. Furthermore, we prove an improved complexity bound for PCDM under strong convexity, and show that this bound is at least $8(L'/\bar{L})(\omega-1)^2$ times better than the best known bound for DQAM, where $\omega$ is the degree of partial separability and $L'$ and $\bar{L}$ are the maximum and average of the block Lipschitz constants of the gradient of the quadratic penalty appearing in the augmented Lagrangian.

Abstract:
This paper presents two families of phase-space distribution functions (DFs) that generate scale-free spheroidal mass densities in scale-free spherical potentials. The `case I' DFs are anisotropic generalizations of the flattened f(E,L_z) model, which they include as a special case. The `case II' DFs generate flattened constant-anisotropy models, in which the constant ratio of rms tangential to radial motion is characterized by Binney's parameter beta. The models can describe the outer parts of galaxies and the density cusp structure near a central black hole, but also provide general insight into the dynamical properties of flattened systems. The dependence of the intrinsic and projected properties on the model parameters and the inclination is described. The observed ratio of the rms projected line-of-sight velocities on the projected major and minor axes of elliptical galaxies is best fit by the case II models with beta > 0. These models also predict non-Gaussian velocity profile shapes consistent with existing observations. The distribution functions are used to model the galaxies NGC 2434 (E1) and NGC 3706 (E4), for which stellar kinematical measurements out to two effective radii indicate the presence of dark halos (Carollo et al.). The velocity profile shapes of both galaxies can be well fit by radially anisotropic case II models with a spherical logarithmic potential. This contrasts with the f(E,L_z) models studied previously, which require flattened dark halos to fit the data.

Abstract:
We show different expressions of distribution functions (DFs) which depend only on the two classical integrals of the energy and the magnitude of the angular momentum with respect to the axis of symmetry for stellar systems with known axisymmetric densities. The density of the system is required to be a product of functions separable in the potential and the radial coordinate, where the functions of the radial coordinate are powers of a sum of a square of the radial coordinate and its unit scale. The even part of the two-integral DF corresponding to this type of density is in turn a sum or an infinite series of products of functions of the energy and of the magnitude of the angular momentum about the axis of symmetry. A similar expression of its odd part can be also obtained under the assumption of the rotation laws. It can be further shown that these expressions are in fact equivalent to those obtained by using Hunter and Qian's contour integral formulae for the system. This method is generally computationally preferable to the contour integral method. Two examples are given to obtain the even and odd parts of their two-integral DFs. One is for the prolate Jaffe model and the other for the prolate Plummer model. It can be also found that the Hunter-Qian contour integral formulae of the two-integral even DF for axisymmetric systems can be recovered by use of the Laplace-Mellin integral transformation originally developed by Dejonghe.

Abstract:
We obtain an expression for the active gravitational mass of a collapsing fluid distribution, which brings out the role of density inhomogeneity and local anisotropy in the fate of spherical collapse.

Abstract:
In this paper, the role of anisotropy and inhomogeneity has been studied in quasi-spherical gravitational collapse. Also the role of initial data has been investigated in characterizing the final state of collapse. Finally, a linear transformation on the initial data set has been presented and its impact has been discussed.