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 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/737/2/90 Abstract: We identify 73 z~7 and 59 z~8 candidate galaxies in the reionization epoch, and use this large 26-29.4 AB mag sample of galaxies to derive very deep luminosity functions to <-18 AB mag and the star formation rate density at z~7 and z~8. The galaxy sample is derived using a sophisticated Lyman-Break technique on the full two-year WFC3/IR and ACS data available over the HUDF09 (~29.4 AB mag, 5 sigma), two nearby HUDF09 fields (~29 AB mag, 14 arcmin) and the wider area ERS (~27.5 AB mag) ~40 arcmin**2). The application of strict optical non-detection criteria ensures the contamination fraction is kept low (just ~7% in the HUDF). This very low value includes a full assessment of the contamination from lower redshift sources, photometric scatter, AGN, spurious sources, low mass stars, and transients (e.g., SNe). From careful modelling of the selection volumes for each of our search fields we derive luminosity functions for galaxies at z~7 and z~8 to <-18 AB mag. The faint-end slopes alpha at z~7 and z~8 are uncertain but very steep at alpha = -2.01+/-0.21 and alpha=-1.91+/-0.32, respectively. Such steep slopes contrast to the local alpha<~-1.4 and may even be steeper than that at z~4 where alpha=-1.73+/-0.05. With such steep slopes (alpha<~-1.7) lower luminosity galaxies dominate the galaxy luminosity density during the epoch of reionization. The star formation rate densities derived from these new z~7 and z~8 luminosity functions are consistent with the trends found at later times (lower redshifts). We find reasonable consistency, with the SFR densities implied from reported stellar mass densities, being only ~40% higher at z<7. This suggests that (1) the stellar mass densities inferred from the Spitzer IRAC photometry are reasonably accurate and (2) that the IMF at very high redshift may not be very different from that at later times.
 Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1086/118019 Abstract: We report on the initial results of a spectroscopic investigation of galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field which exhibit spectral discontinuities between the F450W and F300W passbands, indicative of the presence of the Lyman continuum break in the redshift range 2.4 < z < 3.4. We have employed color selection criteria similar to those we have used for selecting high redshift galaxy candidates from ground--based images. We find that, as for the ground--based color selection, the criteria are very successful in selecting high redshift objects. Of the 8 galaxies observed (selected from a list of 23 candidates with magnitudes equivalent to R <= 25.3, five have confirmed redshifts in the range 2.59 <= z <= 3.22, with the remaining 3 being indeterminate because of contamination from nearby brighter objects. As expected, the HST filter system is sensitive to a somewhat broader range of redshifts than our ground--based U_nGR filter system, and therefore the surveyed volume per unit area on the sky is correspondingly larger. The distribution of candidates on the plane of the sky is clearly non--uniform, consistent with the available ground--based data on the high redshift galaxies. Most Lyman break objects in the Hubble Deep Field exhibit a similar range of morphological properties to the z > 3 galaxies we have previously identified in other fields, characterized by very compact cores (some with multiple components) with half--light radii of 0.2-0.3 arcseconds, often surrounded by more diffuse and asymmetric halos''. A few of the brighter HDF Lyman break galaxies, however, have particularly unusual morphologies.
 Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20031181 Abstract: (abridged) We present a large sample of z~3 U- band dropout galaxies extracted from the Canada-France deep fields survey (CFDF). Our catalogue covers an effective area of ~1700 arcmin^2 divided between three large, contiguous fields separated widely on the sky. To IAB=24.5, the survey contains 1294 Lyman-break candidates, in agreement with previous measurements by other authors. Based on comparisons with spectroscopic observations and simulations, we estimate that our sample of Lyman-break galaxies is contaminated by stars and interlopers at no more than ~30%. We find that \omega(\theta) is well fitted by a power-law of fixed slope, \gamma=1.8, even at small (\theta<10'') angular separations. In two of our three fields, we are able to fit simultaneously for both the slope and amplitude and find a slope \gamma ~ 1.81. Our data marginally indicates in one field (at a 3 \sigma level) that the Lyman-break correlation length r_0 depends on sample limiting magnitude: brighter Lyman-break galaxies are more clustered than fainter ones. For the entire CFDF sample, assuming a fixed slope \gamma = 1.8 we find r_0 = (5.9\pm0.5)h^{-1} Mpc. Using these clustering measurements and prediction for the dark matter density field, we derive a linear bias of b = 3.5 +/- 0.3. Finally we show that the dependence of the correlation length with the surface density of Lyman-break galaxies is in good agreement with a simple picture where more luminous galaxies are hosted by more massive dark matter halos with a simple one-to-one correspondence.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2010.00950.x Abstract: We present first results of a study of the submillimetre (rest frame far-infrared) properties of z~3 Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) and their lower-redshift counterparts BX/BM galaxies, based on Herschel-SPIRE observations of the Northern field of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS-N). We use stacking analysis to determine the properties of LBGs well below the current limit of the survey. Although LBGs are not detected individually, stacking the infrared luminous LBGs (those detected with Spitzer at 24 microns yields a statistically significant submm detection with mean flux = 5.9+/-1.4 mJy confirming the power of SPIRE in detecting UV-selected high-redshift galaxies at submillimetre wavelengths. In comparison, the Spitzer 24 microns detected BX/BM galaxies appear fainter with a stacked value of = 2.7 +/-0.8 mJy. By fitting the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) we derive median infrared luminosities, L_{IR}, of 2.8x10^{12} Lsun and 1.5x10^{11} Lsun for z~3 LBGs and BX/BMs, respectively. We find that $L_{IR} estimates derived from present measurements are in good agreement with those based on UV data for z~2 BX/BM galaxies, unlike the case for z~3 infrared luminous LBGs where the UV underestimates the true$L_{IR}. Although sample selection effects may influence this result we suggest that differences in physical properties (such as morphologies, dust distribution and extent of star-forming regions) between z ~3 LBGs and z~2 BX/BMs may also play a significant role.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21826.x Abstract: Using about 450,000 galaxies in the Deep Lens Survey, we present a detection of the gravitational magnification of z > 4 Lyman Break Galaxies by massive foreground galaxies with 0.4 < z < 1.0, grouped by redshift. The magnification signal is detected at S/N greater than 20, and rigorous checks confirm that it is not contaminated by any galaxy sample overlap in redshift. The inferred galaxy mass profiles are consistent with earlier lensing analyses at lower redshift. We then explore the tomographic lens magnification signal by splitting our foreground galaxy sample into 7 redshift bins. Combining galaxy-magnification cross-correlations and galaxy angular auto-correlations, we develop a bias-independent estimator of the tomographic signal. As a diagnostic of magnification tomography, the measurement of this estimator rejects a flat dark matter dominated Universe at > 7.5{\sigma} with a fixed \sigma_8 and is found to be consistent with the expected redshift-dependence of the WMAP7 {\Lambda}CDM cosmology.
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/695/2/1163 Abstract: We report on observations of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) selected from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey at mean redshift z~4, 5 and 6, obtained with FORS2 spectrograph at the ESO-VLT.This program has yielded spectroscopic identifications for 114 galaxies of which 51 are at z~4, 31 at z~5, and 32 at z~6. The adopted selection criteria are effective, identifying galaxies at the expected redshift with minimal foreground contamination. Once selection effects are properly accounted for, the rest-frame UV spectra of the higher-redshift LBGs appear to be similar to their counterparts at z~3. As at z~3, LBGs at z~4 and z~5 show Lya both in emission and in absorption; when in absorption, strong interstellar lines and red UV spectra are observed, a fact also measured at z~2 and 3. At z~6, sensitivity issues bias our sample towards galaxies with Lya in emission; nevertheless, these spectra appear to be similar to their lower-redshift counterparts. As in other studies at similar redshifts, we find clear evidence that brighter LBGs tend to have weaker Lya emission lines. At fixed rest-frame UV luminosity, the equivalent width of the Lya emission line is larger at higher redshifts. At all redshifts where the measurements can be reliably made, the redshift of the Lya emission line turns out to be larger than that of the interstellar absorption lines,with a median velocity difference DeltaV~400 km/s at z~4 and 5, consistent with results at lower redshifts. This shows that powerful, large-scale winds are common at high redshift.In general,there is no strong correlation between the morphology of the UV light and the spectroscopic properties. However, galaxies with deep interstellar absorption lines and strong Lya absorption appear to be more diffuse than galaxies with Lya in emission.(abridged)
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/776/2/L24 Abstract: We present deep IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) observations, searching for CO-emission toward two massive, non-lensed Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z=3.216 and 4.058. With one low significance CO detection (3.5 sigma) and one sensitive upper limit, we find that the CO lines are >~ 3-4 times weaker than expected based on the relation between IR and CO luminosities followed by similarly, massive galaxies at z=0-2.5. This is consistent with a scenario in which these galaxies have low metallicity, causing an increased CO-to-H_2 conversion factor, i.e., weaker CO-emission for a given molecular (H_2) mass. The required metallicities at z>3 are lower than predicted by the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) at these redshifts, consistent with independent evidence. Unless our galaxies are atypical in this respect, detecting molecular gas in normal galaxies at z>3 may thus remain challenging even with ALMA.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/765/2/88 Abstract: We analyze the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z=1-3 selected using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) UVIS channel filters. These HST/WFC3 observations cover about 50 sq. arcmin in the GOODS-South field as a part of the WFC3 Early Release Science program. These LBGs at z=1-3 are selected using dropout selection criteria similar to high redshift LBGs. The deep multi-band photometry in this field is used to identify best-fit SED models, from which we infer the following results: (1) the photometric redshift estimate of these dropout selected LBGs is accurate to within few percent; (2) the UV spectral slope (beta) is redder than at high redshift (z>3), where LBGs are less dusty; (3) on average, LBGs at z=1-3 are massive, dustier and more highly star-forming, compared to LBGs at higher redshifts with similar luminosities (0.1L*<~L<~2.5L*), though their median values are similar within 1-sigma uncertainties. This could imply that identical dropout selection technique, at all redshifts, find physically similar galaxies; and (4) stellar masses of these LBGs are directly proportional to their UV luminosities with a logarithmic slope of ~0.46, and star-formation rates are proportional to their stellar masses with a logarithmic slope of ~0.90. These relations hold true --- within luminosities probed in this study --- for LBGs from z~1.5 to 5. The star-forming galaxies selected using other color-based techniques show similar correlations at z~2, but to avoid any selection biases, and for direct comparison with LBGs at z>3, a true Lyman break selection at z~2 is essential. The future HST UV surveys, both wider and deeper, covering a large luminosity range are important to better understand LBG properties, and their evolution.
 Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/323570 Abstract: We present results from stacking analyses, using the 1 Ms Chandra Deep Field North data, that constrain the X-ray emission of Lyman break galaxies at z = 2-4. Stacking the counts from 24 individually undetected Lyman break galaxies located within the Hubble Deep Field North, we have obtained average detections of these objects in the resulting 0.5-8.0 keV and 0.5-2.0 keV images; these images have effective exposure times of 22.4 Ms (260 days). Monte Carlo testing empirically shows the detections to be highly significant. The average rest-frame 2-8 keV luminosity of a Lyman break galaxy is derived to be 3.2 x 10^{41} erg s^{-1}, comparable to that of the most X-ray luminous starbursts in the local Universe. The observed ratio of X-ray to B-band luminosity is somewhat, but not greatly, higher than that seen from local starbursts. The X-ray emission probably arises from a combination of high-mass X-ray binaries, "super-Eddington" X-ray sources, and low-luminosity active galactic nuclei.
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/344608 Abstract: We have used 850$\mu$m maps obtained as part of the Canada-UK Deep Submillimeter Survey (CUDSS) to investigate the sub-mm properties of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs). We used three samples of Lyman-break galaxies: two from the Canada-France Deep Fields (CFDF) survey covering CUDSS-14 and CUDSS-3, and one from Steidel and collaborators also covering CUDSS-14. We measure a mean flux from both CFDF LBG samples at a level of $\sim2\sigma$ of 0.414 $\pm$ 0.263 mJy for CUDSS-03 and 0.382 $\pm$ 0.206 mJy for CUDSS-14, but the Steidel et al. sample is consistent with zero flux. From this we place upper limits on the Lyman-break contribution to the $850{\mu}m$ background of $\sim$20%. We have also measured the cross-clustering between the LBGs and SCUBA sources. From this measurement we infer a large clustering amplitude of $r_o$ = 11.5 $\pm$ 3.0 $\pm$ 3.0 $h^{-1}$Mpc for the Steidel et al. sample (where the first error is statistical and the second systematic), $r_o$ = 4.5 $\pm$ 7.0 $\pm$ 5.0 $h^{-1}$Mpc for CFDF-14 and $r_o$ = 7.5 $\pm$ 7.0 $\pm$ 5.0 $h^{-1}$Mpc for CFDF-3. The Steidel et al sample, for which we have most only significant detection of clustering is also the largest of the three samples and has spectroscopically confirmed redshifts.
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