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Extensive Air Shower Simulations at the Highest Energies  [PDF]
J. Knapp,D. Heck,S. J. Sciutto,M. T. Dova,M. Risse
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1016/S0927-6505(02)00187-1
Abstract: Air shower simulation programs are essential tools for the analysis of data from cosmic ray experiments and for planning the layout of new detectors. They are used to estimate the energy and mass of the primary particle. Unfortunately the model uncertainties translate directly into systematic errors in the energy and mass determination. Aiming at energies $> 10^{19}$ eV, the models have to be extrapolated far beyond the energies available at accelerators. On the other hand, hybrid measurement of ground particle densities and calorimetric shower energy, as will be provided by the Pierre Auger Observatory, will strongly constrain shower models. While the main uncertainty of contemporary models comes from our poor knowledge of the (soft) hadronic interactions at high energies, also electromagnetic interactions, low-energy hadronic interactions and the particle transport influence details of the shower development. We review here the physics processes and some of the computational techniques of air shower models presently used for highest energies, and discuss the properties and limitations of the models.
Specific Interactions at Cosmic Ray Energies for Extensive Air Showers Experiments  [PDF]
V. Topor Pop,M. Gyulassy,H. Rebel
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1016/S0927-6505(98)00050-4
Abstract: The HIJING and VENUS models of relativistic hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are used to study interactions of hadron-hadron, hadron-nitrogen and nucleus-nitrogen collisions, specific for the extensive air shower developments initiated by cosmic rays in the atmosphere. The transverse energy, transverse momenta and spectra of secondary particles as well as their energy and mass dependence have been investigated in detail. Results are presented with particular emphasis on the contributions of minijets in HIJING model and validity of superposition models in this energy range.
Hadronic Multiparticle Production at Ultra-High Energies and Extensive Air Showers  [PDF]
Ralf Ulrich,Ralph Engel,Michael Unger
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.83.054026
Abstract: Studies of the nature of cosmic ray particles at the highest energies are based on the measurement of extensive air showers. Most cosmic ray properties can therefore only be obtained from the interpretation of air shower data and are thus depending on predictions of hadronic interaction models at ultra-high energies. We discuss different scenarios of model extrapolations from accelerator data to air shower energies and investigate their impact on the corresponding air shower predictions. To explore the effect of different extrapolations by hadronic interaction models we developed an ad hoc model. This ad hoc model is based on the modification of the output of standard hadronic interaction event generators within the air shower simulation process and allows us to study the impact of changing interaction features on the air shower development. In a systematic study we demonstrate the resulting changes of important air shower observables and also discuss them in terms of the predictions of the Heitler model of air shower cascades. It is found that the results of our ad hoc modifications are, to a large extend, independent of the choice of the underlying hadronic interaction model.
Sensitivity of Extensive Air Showers to Features of Hadronic Interactions at Ultra-High Energies  [PDF]
Ralf Ulrich,Ralph Engel,Steffen Müller,Tanguy Pierog,Fabian Schüssler,Michael Unger
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: We study the dependence of extensive air shower development on the first hadronic interactions at ultra-high energies occurring in the startup phase of the air shower cascade. The interpretation of standard air shower observables depends on the characteristics of these interactions. Thus, it is currently difficult to draw firm conclusions for example on the primary cosmic ray mass composition from the analysis of air shower data. On the other hand, a known primary mass composition would allow us to study hadronic interactions at center of mass energies well above the range that is accessible to accelerators measurements.
Wide field-of-view Cherenkov telescope for the detection of cosmic rays in coincidence with the Yakutsk extensive air shower array  [PDF]
A. A. Ivanov,S. P. Knurenko,A. D. Krasilnikov,Z. E. Petrov,M. I. Pravdin,I. Ye. Sleptsov,L. V. Timofeev
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2014.10.029
Abstract: The Yakutsk array group is developing a wide field-of-view Cherenkov telescope to be operated in coincidence with the surface detectors of the extensive air shower array. Currently, the engineering prototype of the reflecting telescope with the front-end electronics is designed, assembled, and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of the conceived instrument. The status and specifications of the prototype telescope are presented, as well as the modernization program of the already existing Cherenkov light detectors subset of the array measuring ultra-high energy cosmic rays.
Search for cosmic gamma rays with the Carpet-2 extensive air shower array  [PDF]
D. D. Dzhappuev,V. B. Petkov,A. U. Kudzhaev,N. F. Klimenko,A. S. Lidvansky,S. V. Troitsky
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The present-day status of the problem of searching for primary cosmic gamma rays at energies above 100 TeV is discussed, as well as a proposal for a new experiment in this field. It is shown that an increase of the area of the muon detector of the Carpet-2 air shower array up to 410 square meters, to be realized in 2016, will make this array quite competitive with past and existing experiments, especially at modest energies. Some preliminary results of measurements made with smaller area of the muon detector are presented together with estimates of expected results to be obtained with the coming large-area muon detector.
Proton-Air Cross Section and Extensive Air Showers  [PDF]
Ralf Ulrich,Ralph Engel,Steffen Müller,Fabian Schüssler,Michael Unger
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2009.09.064
Abstract: Hadronic cross sections at ultra-high energy have a significant impact on the development of extensive air shower cascades. Therefore the interpretation of air shower data depends critically on hadronic interaction models that extrapolate the cross section from accelerator measurements to the highest cosmic ray energies. We discuss how extreme scenarios of cross section extrapolations can affect the interpretation of air shower data. We find that the theoretical uncertainty of the extrapolated proton-air cross section at ultra-high energies is much larger than suggested by the existing spread of available Monte Carlo model predictions. The impact on the depth of the shower maximum is demonstrated.
Implementing the De-thinning Method for High Energy Cosmic Rays Extensive Air Shower Simulations  [PDF]
A. Estupi?án,H. Asorey,L. A. Nú?ez
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2015.10.140
Abstract: To simulate the interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth atmosphere requires highly complex computational resources and several statistical techniques have been developed to simplify those calculations. It is common to implement the thinning algorithms to reduce the number of secondary particles by assigning weights to representative particles in the evolution of the cascade. However, since this is a compression method with information loss, it is required to recover the original flux of secondary particles without introduce artificial biases. In this work we present the preliminary results of our version of the de-thinning algorithm for the reconstruction of thinned simulations of extensive air showers initiated by cosmic rays and photons in the energy range $10^{15} < E/\mathrm{eV} < 10^{17}$.
Future Extensive Air Shower arrays: from Gamma-Ray Astronomy to Cosmic Rays  [PDF]
Giuseppe Di Sciascio
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Despite large progresses in building new detectors and in the analysis techniques, the key questions concerning the origin, acceleration and propagation of Galactic Cosmic Rays are still open. A number of new EAS arrays is in progress. The most ambitious and sensitive project between them is LHAASO, a new generation multi-component experiment to be installed at very high altitude in China (Daocheng, Sichuan province, 4400 m a.s.l.). The experiment will face the open problems through a combined study of photon- and charged particle-induced extensive air showers in the wide energy range 10$^{11}$ - 10$^{18}$ eV. In this paper the status of the experiment will be summarized, the science program presented and the outlook discussed in comparison with leading new projects.
An investigation of mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with energies above 1019 eV via the study of extensive air showers
Doostmohammadi S.,Fatemi S.J.
Serbian Astronomical Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/saj1284087d
Abstract: The electron and muon components of extensive air shower (EAS) with energies above 1019 eV are analyzed via various giant EAS arrays. A varying property of showers is observed for two energy ranges; higher and lower than (3 4) x 1019 eV. The age parameter, zenith angle, shower size dependence on muon size and shower size dependence on primary energy show an increment of mass composition (MC) above (3 4)x 1019eV. Comparison of the observed EAS results with the simulations of Capdevielle et al. (2000) and Shinozaki et al. (2005) gives at most 20% photon fraction for primary energies above 1019 eV. The arrival directions of showers above 4x1019 eV indicate an increasing concentration towards the super galactic plane.
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