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Concepts to Analyze the Vulnerability of Critical Infrastructures - Taking into account Cybernetics
Frédéric Petit,Beno?t Robert
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2010,
Abstract: Critical Infrastructures (CIs) are complex systems. For their operations, these infrastructures are increasingly using Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Management practices are therefore highly dependent on the cyber tools, but also on the data needed to make these tools work. Therefore, CIs are greatly vulnerable to degradation of data. In this context, this paper aims at presenting the fundamentals of a method for analyzing the vulnerabilities of CIs towards the use of cyber data. By characterizing cyber vulnerability of CIs, it will be possible to improve the resilience of these networks and to foster a proactive approach to risk management not only by considering cybernetics from a cyber-attack point of view but also by considering the consequences of the use of corrupted data.
The Economic Value regarding the Protection Activities of Critical Infrastructures
Valentin-Bogdan D?NIL?
Acta Universitatis Danubius : Administratio , 2011,
Abstract: In the past two years, a number of European countries, members of EU, Australia and Canada have initiated substantive actions in PIC area, establishing bodies responsible, defining procedures and methodologies, allocating significant resources to protect critical infrastructure considered essential or vital. The security concept, and implicit, the economical and energetic ones have different use and defining in relation to the history and organizational culture of every nation. A decisive contribution in the process of defining those concepts is identifying the set of values and national interests, elements that usually are the result of the public opinion perception. The increased share of non-military risks and threats has determined the national security management reconsideration, becoming more obvious the necessity of “public-private partnership” approach. Anew concept is becoming more and more present and gains maximum generality significations. This kind of process reconfigures the position and the role of social state actors: the political class, thebusiness and scientific environment, civil society and citizens.
End-users needs and requirements for tools to support critical infrastructures protection  [PDF]
Michal Choras,Rafal Kozik,Rafal Renk,Witold Holubowicz
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: The role of the services described in this paper is to support decisions in the Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) domain. Those services are perceived as the most fundamental functionalities, that will serve as a basis for the planned European simulation centre for modelling the behaviour of Critical Infrastructures (CI). The proposed services are: CI-related data accessing and gathering, threat forecasting and visualisation, consequence analysis, crowd management, as well as resources and capability management. In general, services proposed in the current paper will contribute to reducing the problem of overwhelming decision makers by too large amount of information. In the crisis, their decisions are made on the basis of the large amount of data related to the current situation, such as the status of CI, localisation of capabilities, weather and threat forecasts etc. The design of the services has been established with the help of the future end-users. The work presented in this paper is the result of preliminary activities performed in the FP7 project CIPRNet.
Common criteria for the assessment of critical infrastructures
Alexander Fekete
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s13753-011-0002-y
Abstract: Society is reliant on infrastructure services, such as information and communication technology, energy, water, and food supply, but also on governmental, cultural, and search and rescue organizations. The goal of project Kritis-KAT at the Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance in Germany is the development of generic criteria for the identification and evaluation of infrastructures regarded as “critical” for society. Acknowledging that full protection against all threats and cascading effects is not possible, the approach focuses on the impacts rather than the prevention of threats. The development of generic criteria requires the prioritization of infrastructures and identification of their key characteristics for civil protection purposes, risk management activities, and strategic proactive planning. For this purpose, the development of a national critical infrastructure priority inventory is based on a thorough examination of the range of criteria typically used in similar approaches. The specific focus of this paper is to identify and simplify essential characteristics of infrastructure criticality. The main outcome of this study is the development of common criteria generally applicable to a variety of infrastructures.
Durability of critical infrastructures
Raluca Pascu,Ramiro Sofronie
Advances in Environmental Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The paper deals with those infrastructures by which world society, under the pressure ofdemographic explosion, self-survives. The main threatening comes not from terrorist attacks, but fromthe great natural catastrophes and global climate change. It’s not for the first time in history when suchmeasures of self-protection are built up. First objective of this paper is to present the background fordurability analysis. Then, with the aid of these mathematical tools the absolute durability of three linearmodels, typical for critical infrastructures, are successively calculated. In order to enhance the durabilityof critical infrastructures the solution based on redundancies is chosen. Five types of connection theredundancies for each of the three models are considered. Three topological schemes for connecting theredundancies are adopted: locally, by twining and globally. Absolute values of durability in all fifteenmodels with redundancies are further calculated. Then, the relative performances of enhanced durabilityin the same fifteen models, compared with the three original models, considered as references, areanalysed. The relative costs of the same fifteen models and in similar topologic conditions are furtheranalysed. By dividing the performance with cost the relative profitableness of each model is obtained.Finally, the three initial models, each reshaped with redundancies in three selective modes, arecompared from the perspective of their relative profitableness. The outcomes of this paper are original.They are of practical interests in planning the maintenance programs and checking the plausibility ofproposed interventions according to the clause 7.4 of ISO 13822:2001
Risk Analysis for Critical Infrastructures Using Fuzzy TOPSIS  [cached]
Morteza Yazdani,Ali Alidoosti,Mohammad Hossein Basiri
Journal of Management Research , 2011, DOI: 10.5296/jmr.v4i1.979
Abstract: Critical infrastructures are the most important sector in countries because of the essentiality of nation security, public safety, socioeconomic security, and way of life. According to the importance of infrastructures, it is a necessity to analyze the potential risks to do not allow these risks convert into events. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a developed framework with the aim to overcome limitations of the classical approach to build a more secure, safer, and more resilient critical infrastructures in order to develop, implement, control. The proposed framework extends conventional RAMCAP (Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection) through introducing new parameters the effects on risk value. According to the complexity of problem and the inherent uncertainty, this research adopts the fuzzy TOPSIS as a fuzzy multi criteria decision making technique to determine the weights of each criterion and the importance of alternatives with respect to criteria. Case analysis is implemented to illustrate the capability and effectiveness of the model for ranking the risk of critical infrastructures. The proposed model demonstrates a significant improvement in comparison with conventional RAMCAP.
Relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure protection
B van Niekerk, MS Maharaj
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies , 2011,
Abstract: This article illustrates the relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure protection. Analogies of information warfare models to those of information security and information systems were used to deconstruct the models into their fundamental components and this will be discussed. The models were applied to critical infrastructures to illustrate the relevance to critical infrastructure protection. By considering the interdependencies of the critical infrastructure sectors, it will be shown how all critical infrastructures can be modelled as information infrastructures when considering information warfare attacks.
RELEVANCE OF INFORMATION WARFARE MODELS TO CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION  [cached]
Brett Van Niekerk,Manoj S. Maharaj
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5787/39-2-114
Abstract: This article illustrates the relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure protection. Analogies of information warfare models to those of information security and information systems were used to deconstruct the models into their fundamental components and this will be discussed. The models were applied to critical infrastructures to illustrate the relevance to critical infrastructure protection. By considering the interdependencies of the critical infrastructure sectors, it will be shown how all critical infrastructures can be modelled as information infrastructures when considering information warfare attacks.
Resilience? Insights into the role of Critical Infrastructures Disaster Mitigation Strategies Resilience? Insights into the role of Critical Infrastructures Disaster Mitigation Strategies  [cached]
Sara Bouchon,Carmelo Di Mauro
TeMA : Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment , 2012, DOI: 10.6092/1970-9870/944
Abstract: Critical infrastructures (CI) systems provide essential services “for the maintenance of critical societal functions, including the supply chain, health, safety, security and economic or social well-being of the people” (European Commission, 2008). These systems are exposed to a great number of hazards and threats, which may result in severe consequences for the population, the socio-economic system, and the environment. The issue is particularly relevant at urban level, where the disruption of one CI system can propagate to the other systems and paralyze the entire area. It is therefore necessary, not only to protect CIs through Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) strategies, but also to enhance the resilience of these areas. This article aims thus at providing some insights related to the evolution of the critical infrastructures disaster mitigation strategies from the sole protection towards resilience: what kind of strategies based on resilience can be developed to address CIs disruption at local or regional level? To what extent do these strategies contribute to increase the resilience level of the entire urban or metropolitan area? The first section focuses on the urban critical infrastructures systems as well as on the way their disruption can impact urban areas. The second section provides with some examples of key measures to operationalize resilience in the field of critical infrastructure disaster mitigation strategies. The last section highlights how the key measures developed to enhance the resilience against CI disruptions can benefit also to broader urban resilience. Critical infrastructures (CI) systems provide essential services “for the maintenance of critical societal functions, including the supply chain, health, safety, security and economic or social well-being of the people” (European Commission, 2008). These systems are exposed to a great number of hazards and threats, which may result in severe consequences for the population, the socio-economic system, and the environment. The issue is particularly relevant at urban level, where the disruption of one CI system can propagate to the other systems and paralyze the entire area. It is therefore necessary, not only to protect CIs through Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) strategies, but also to enhance the resilience of these areas. This article aims thus at providing some insights related to the evolution of the critical infrastructures disaster mitigation strategies from the sole protection towards resilience: what kind of strategies based on resilience can be develop
Big Data in Critical Infrastructures Security Monitoring: Challenges and Opportunities  [PDF]
L. Aniello,A. Bondavalli,A. Ceccarelli,C. Ciccotelli,M. Cinque,F. Frattini,A. Guzzo,A. Pecchia,A. Pugliese,L. Querzoni,S. Russo
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Critical Infrastructures (CIs), such as smart power grids, transport systems, and financial infrastructures, are more and more vulnerable to cyber threats, due to the adoption of commodity computing facilities. Despite the use of several monitoring tools, recent attacks have proven that current defensive mechanisms for CIs are not effective enough against most advanced threats. In this paper we explore the idea of a framework leveraging multiple data sources to improve protection capabilities of CIs. Challenges and opportunities are discussed along three main research directions: i) use of distinct and heterogeneous data sources, ii) monitoring with adaptive granularity, and iii) attack modeling and runtime combination of multiple data analysis techniques.
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