Abstract:
Two tunnel-coupled few-electron quantum dots were fabricated in a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well. The absolute number of electrons in each dot could be determined from finite bias Coulomb blockade measurements and gate voltage scans of the dots, and allows the number of electrons to be controlled down to zero. The Zeeman energy of several electronic states in one of the dots was measured with an in-plane magnetic field, and the g-factor of the states was found to be no different than that of electrons in bulk GaAs. Tunnel-coupling between dots is demonstrated, and the tunneling strength was estimated from the peak splitting of the Coulomb blockade peaks of the double dot.

Abstract:
We propose and analyze a spin-entangler for electrons based on an s-wave superconductor coupled to two quantum dots each of which is tunnel-coupled to normal Fermi leads. We show that in the presence of a voltage bias and in the Coulomb blockade regime two correlated electrons provided by the Andreev process can coherently tunnel from the superconductor via different dots into different leads. The spin-singlet coming from the Cooper pair remains preserved in this process, and the setup provides a source of mobile and nonlocal spin-entangled electrons. The transport current is calculated and shown to be dominated by a two-particle Breit-Wigner resonance which allows the injection of two spin-entangled electrons into different leads at exactly the same orbital energy, which is a crucial requirement for the detection of spin entanglement via noise measurements. The coherent tunneling of both electrons into the same lead is suppressed by the on-site Coulomb repulsion and/or the superconducting gap, while the tunneling into different leads is suppressed through the initial separation of the tunneling electrons. In the regime of interest the particle-hole excitations of the leads are shown to be negligible. The Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the current are shown to contain single- and two-electron periods with amplitudes that both vanish with increasing Coulomb repulsion albeit differently fast.

Abstract:
We study the conductance spectrum of graphene quantum dots, both single and multiple cases. The single electron tunneling phenomenon is investigated and the periodicity, amplitude and line shape of the Coulomb blockade oscillations at low temperatures are obtained. Further, we discuss the transport behavior when multiple dots are assembled in array and find a phase transition of conductance spectra from individual Coulomb blockade to collective Coulomb blockade.

Abstract:
We discuss several scenarios for the creation of nonlocal spin-entangled electrons which provide a source of electronic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs. The central idea is to exploit the spin correlations naturally present in superconductors in form of Cooper pairs. We show that nonlocal spin-entanglement in form of an effective Heisenberg spin interaction is induced between electron spins residing on two quantum dots with no direct coupling between them but each of them being tunnel-coupled to the same superconductor. We then discuss a nonequilibrium setup where mobile and nonlocal spin-entanglement can be created by coherent injection of two electrons in an Andreev tunneling process into two spatially separated quantum dots and subsequently into two Fermi-liquid leads. The current for injecting two spin-entangled electrons into different leads shows a resonance whereas tunneling via the same dot into the same lead is suppressed by the Coulomb blockade effect of the quantum dots. The Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the current are shown to contain h/e and h/2e periods. Finally we discuss a structure consisting of a superconductor weakly coupled to two separate Luttinger liquid leads. We show that strong correlations again suppress the coherent subsequent tunneling of two electrons into the same lead, thus generating again nonlocal spin-entangled electrons.

Abstract:
The rate-equation approach is used to describe sequential tunneling through a molecular junction in the Coulomb blockade regime. Such device is composed of molecular quantum dot (with discrete energy levels) coupled with two metallic electrodes via potential barriers. Based on this model, we calculate nonlinear transport characteristics (conductance-voltage and current-voltage dependences) and compare them with the results obtained within a self-consistent field approach. It is shown that the shape of transport characteristics is determined by the combined effect of the electronic structure of molecular quantum dots and by the Coulomb blockade. In particular, the following phenomena are discussed in detail: the suppression of the current at higher voltages, the charging-induced rectification effect, the charging-generated changes of conductance gap, and the temperature-induced as well as broadening-generated smoothing of current steps.

Abstract:
High quality single wall carbon nanotube quantum dots have been made showing both metallic and semiconducting behavior. Some of the devices are identified as small band gap semiconducting nanotubes with relatively high broad conductance oscillations for hole transport through the valence band and low conductance Coulomb blockade oscillations for electron transport through the conduction band. The transition between these regimes illustrates that transport evolves from being wave-like transmission known as Fabry-Perot interference to single particle-like tunneling of electrons or holes. In the intermediate regime four Coulomb blockade peaks appear in each Fabry-Perot resonance, which is interpreted as entering the SU(4) Kondo regime. A bias shift of opposite polarity for the Kondo resonances for one electron and one hole in a shell is in some cases observed.

Abstract:
We investigate the electron addition spectrum in a class of Hubbard-like models which describe arrays of coupled quantum dots. Interdot tunneling leads to a sequence of two phase transitions separating a region of collective Coulomb blockade from a region where the Coulomb blockade of individual dots is maintained and a region where the Coulomb blockade is destroyed altogether. Observable experimental consequences of our theory are discussed.

Abstract:
We consider the production of mobile and nonlocal pairwise spin-entangled electrons from tunneling of a BCS-superconductor (SC) to two normal Fermi liquid leads. The necessary mechanism to separate the two electrons coming from the same Cooper pair (spin-singlet) is achieved by coupling the SC to leads with a finite resistance. The resulting dynamical Coulomb blockade effect, which we describe phenomenologically in terms of an electromagnetic environment, is shown to be enhanced for tunneling of two spin-entangled electrons into the same lead compared to the process where the pair splits and each electron tunnels into a different lead. On the other hand in the pair-split process, the spatial correlation of a Cooper pair leads to a current suppression as a function of distance between the two tunnel junctions which is weaker for effectively lower dimensional SCs.

Abstract:
We develop a non-equilibrium theory to describe weak Coulomb blockade effects in open quantum dots. Working within the bosonized description of electrons in the point contacts, we expose deficiencies in earlier applications of this method, and address them using a 1/N expansion in the inverse number of channels. At leading order this yields the self-consistent potential for the charging interaction. Coulomb blockade effects arise as quantum corrections to transport at the next order. Our approach unifies the phase functional and bosonization approaches to the problem, as well as providing a simple picture for the conductance corrections in terms of renormalization of the dot's elastic scattering matrix, which is obtained also by elementary perturbation theory. For the case of ideal contacts, a symmetry argument immediately allows us to conclude that interactions give no signature in the averaged conductance. Non-equilibrium applications to the pumped current in a quantum pump are worked out in detail.

Abstract:
Signatures of "mesoscopic Coulomb blockade" are reported for quantum dots with one fully transmitting point-contact lead, T1 = 1, T2 << 1. Unlike Coulomb blockade (CB) in weak-tunneling devices (T1, T2 << 1), one-channel CB is a mesoscopic effect requiring quantum coherence. Several distinctive features of mesoscopic CB are observed, including a reduction in CB upon breaking time-reversal symmetry with a magnetic field, relatively large fluctuations of peak position as a function of magnetic field, and strong temperature dependence on the scale of the quantum level spacing.