Abstract:
We investigate the flow properties of a two-dimensional aqueous foam submitted to a quasistatic shear in a Couette geometry. A strong localization of the flow (shear banding) at the edge of the moving wall is evidenced, characterized by an exponential decay of the average tangential velocity. Moreover, the analysis of the rapid velocity fluctuations reveals self-similar dynamical structures consisting of clusters of bubbles rolling as rigid bodies. To relate the instantaneous (elastic) and time-averaged (plastic) components of the strain, we develop a stochastic model where irreversible rearrangements are activated by local stress fluctuations originating from the rubbing of the wall. This model gives a complete description of our observations and is also consistent with data obtained on granular shear bands by other groups.

Abstract:
We report on experimental measurements of the flow behavior of a wet, two-dimensional foam under conditions of slow, steady shear. The initial response of the foam is elastic. Above the yield strain, the foam begins to flow. The flow consists of irregular intervals of elastic stretch followed by sudden reductions of the stress, i.e. stress drops. We report on the distribution of the stress drops as a function of the applied shear rate. We also comment on our results in the context of various two-dimensional models of foams.

Abstract:
We re-analyse experiments on a foam sheared in a two-dimensional Couette geometry [Debregeas et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 178305 (2001)]. We characterise the bubble deformation by a texture tensor. Our measurements are local in time: they show two regimes, one transient and one stationary. They provide both the average and fluctuations of the anisotropy. Measurements are also local in space: they show that both the deformation and the elastic contribution to the stress field do not localise, varying smoothly across the shear gap. We can thus describe the foam as a continuous medium with elastic properties.

Abstract:
We show that the Lorentz shear modulus -- one of the three elastic moduli of a homogeneous electron gas in a magnetic field -- can be calculated exactly in the limit of high magnetic field (i.e. in the lowest Landau level). Its value is $\pm \hbar n/4$, where $n$ is the two-dimensional electron density and the sign is determined by the orientation of the magnetic field. We use this result to refine our previous calculations of the dispersion of the collective modes of fractional quantum Hall liquids.

Abstract:
We point out that the instantaneous shear modulus of the shoving model for the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of viscous liquids' relaxation time is the experimentally accessible high-frequency plateau modulus, not the idealized instantaneous affine shear modulus that cannot be measured. Data for a large selection of metallic glasses are compared to three different versions of the shoving model. The original shear-modulus based version shows a slight correlation to the Poisson ratio, which is eliminated by the energy-landscape formulation of the model in which the bulk modulus plays a minor role.

Abstract:
Shear banding is an important feature of flow in complex fluids. Essentially, shear bands refer to the coexistence of flowing and non-flowing regions in driven material. Understanding the possible sources of shear banding has important implications for a wide range of flow applications. In this regard, quasi-two dimensional flow offers a unique opportunity to study competing factors that result in shear bands. One proposal is the competition between intrinsic dissipation and an external source of dissipation. In this paper, we report on the experimental observation of the transition between different classes of shear-bands that have been predicted to exist in cylindrical geometry as the result of this competition [R. J. Clancy, E. Janiaud, D. Weaire, and S. Hutzlet, Eur. J. Phys. E, {\bf 21}, 123 (2006)].

Abstract:
Robust arguments predict that a hadron-quark mixed phase may exist in the cores of some "neutron" stars. Such a phase forms a crystalline lattice with a shear modulus higher than that of the crust due to the high density and charge separation, even allowing for the effects of charge screening. This may lead to strong continuous gravitational-wave emission from rapidly rotating neutron stars and gravitational-wave bursts associated with magnetar flares and pulsar glitches. We present the first detailed calculation of the shear modulus of the mixed phase. We describe the quark phase using the bag model plus first-order quantum chromodynamics corrections and the hadronic phase using relativistic mean-field models with parameters allowed by the most massive pulsar. Most of the calculation involves treating the "pasta phases" of the lattice via dimensional continuation, and we give a general method for computing dimensionally continued lattice sums including the Debye model of charge screening. We compute all the shear components of the elastic modulus tensor and angle average them to obtain the effective (scalar) shear modulus for the case where the mixed phase is a polycrystal. We include the contributions from changing the cell size, which are necessary for the stability of the lower-dimensional portions of the lattice. Stability also requires a minimum surface tension, generally tens of MeV/fm^2 depending on the equation of state. We find that the shear modulus can be a few times 10^33 erg/cm^3, two orders of magnitude higher than the first estimate, over a significant fraction of the maximum mass stable star for certain parameter choices.

Abstract:
The behavior of the shear modulus caused by proliferation of dipoles of non-singular screw dislocations with finite-sized core is considered. The representation of two-dimensional Coulomb gas with smoothed-out coupling is used, and the stress-stress correlation function is calculated. A convolution integral expressed in terms of the modified Bessel function $K_0$ is derived in order to obtain the shear modulus in approximation of interacting dipoles. Implications are demonstrated for the shear modulus near the melting transition which are due to the singularityless character of the dislocations.

Abstract:
We suggest a scalar model for deformation and flow of an amorphous material such as a foam or an emulsion. To describe elastic, plastic and viscous behaviours, we use three scalar variables: elastic deformation, plastic deformation rate and total deformation rate; and three material specific parameters: shear modulus, yield deformation and viscosity. We obtain equations valid for different types of deformations and flows slower than the relaxation rate towards mechanical equilibrium. In particular, they are valid both in transient or steady flow regimes, even at large elastic deformation. We discuss why viscosity can be relevant even in this slow shear (often called "quasi-static") limit. Predictions of the storage and loss moduli agree with the experimental literature, and explain with simple arguments the non-linear large amplitude trends.

Abstract:
Under steady shear, a foam relaxes stress through intermittent rearrangements of bubbles accompanied by sudden drops in the stored elastic energy. We use a simple model of foam that incorporates both elasticity and dissipation to study the statistics of bubble rearrangements in terms of energy drops, the number of nearest neighbor changes, and the rate of neighbor-switching (T1) events. We do this for a two-dimensional system as a function of system size, shear rate, dissipation mechanism, and gas area fraction. We find that for dry foams, there is a well-defined quasistatic limit at low shear rates where localized rearrangements occur at a constant rate per unit strain, independent of both system size and dissipation mechanism. These results are in good qualitative agreement with experiments on two-dimensional and three-dimensional foams. In contrast, we find for progessively wetter foams that the event size distribution broadens into a power law that is cut off only by system size. This is consistent with criticality at the melting transition.