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On breaking the age-metallicity degeneracy in early-type galaxies: Outflows versus Star Formation Efficiency  [PDF]
I. Ferreras,J. Silk
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03597.x
Abstract: A simple model of chemical enrichment in cluster early-type galaxies is presented where the main parameters driving the formation of the stellar component are reduced to four: infall timescale (tf), formation epoch (zF), star formation efficiency (Ceff) and fraction of gas ejected in outflows (Bout). We find that only variations in Bout or Ceff can account for the colour-magnitude relation, so that the most luminous galaxies had low values of ejected gas and high efficiencies. The combination of chemical enrichment tracks with population synthesis models is used to explore the correlation between mass-to-light ratios and masses. A significant slope mismatch is found between stellar and total M/L ratios, which cannot be explained by an age spread and implies a non-linear correlation between total and stellar mass. The sequences driven by star formation efficiency and outflows are shown to predict different trends at high redshift. Measurement of the dependence of the tilt of the fundamental plane on redshift will break the degeneracy between outflows and star formation efficiency, which will enable us to determine whether the colour-magnitude relation is controlled by age or metallicity.
On breaking the age-metallicity degeneracy in early-type galaxies: infall versus star formation efficiency  [PDF]
I. Ferreras,J. Silk
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06839.x
Abstract: The correlation between [Mg/Fe] and galaxy mass found in elliptical galaxies sets a strong constraint on the duration of star formation. Furthermore, the colour-magnitude relation restricts the range of ages and metallicities of the stellar populations. We combine these two constraints with a model of star formation and chemical enrichment including infall and outflow of gas to find that the trend towards supersolar [Mg/Fe] in massive ellipticals excludes a pure metallicity sequence as an explanation of the colour-magnitude relation. An age spread is required, attributable either to a range of star formation efficiencies or to a range of infall timescales. We find that the inferred range of stellar ages is compatible with the small scatter and the redshift evolution of the colour-magnitude relation. Two alternative scenarios can explain the data: fixed infall with an efficiency which is linearly dependent on mass, or a fixed efficiency with a mass-dependent infall timescale t~1/sqrt(M). We conclude that the actual scenario may well involve a combination of these two parameters, with mass dependencies which should span the range of those given above.
Spin-Precession: Breaking the Black Hole--Neutron Star Degeneracy  [PDF]
Katerina Chatziioannou,Neil Cornish,Antoine Klein,Nicolas Yunes
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/798/1/L17
Abstract: Mergers of compact stellar remnant are prime targets for the LIGO/Virgo gravitational wave detectors. One hopes that the gravitational wave signals from these merger events can be used to study the mass and spin distribution of stellar remnants, and provide information about black hole horizons and the material properties of neutron stars. However, it has been suggested that degeneracies in the way that the star's mass and spin are imprinted in the waveforms may make it impossible to distinguish between black holes and neutron stars. Here we show that the precession of the orbital plane due to spin-orbit coupling breaks the mass-spin degeneracy, and allows us to distinguish between standard neutron stars and alternative possibilities, such as black holes or exotic neutron stars with large masses and spins.
Towards breaking the Omega-bias degeneracy in density--velocity comparisons  [PDF]
Michal Chodorowski
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02710.x
Abstract: I derive a second-order local relation between the REDSHIFT-space mass density field and the REAL-space velocity field. This relation can be useful for comparisons between the cosmic density and peculiar velocity fields, for a number of reasons. First, relating the real-space velocity directly to the redshift-space density enables one to avoid the Omega-dependent reconstruction of the density field in real space. Secondly, the reconstruction of the three-dimensional velocity field in redshift space, questionable because of its vorticity, is also unnecessary. Finally, a similar relation between the GALAXY density field and the velocity field offers a way to break the Omega-bias degeneracy in density--velocity comparisons, when combined with an additional measurement of the redshift-space galaxy skewness. I derive the latter relation under the assumption of nonlinear but local bias; accounting for stochasticity of bias is left for further study.
On Breaking Cosmic Degeneracy  [PDF]
R. Benton Metcalf,Joseph Silk
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/311080
Abstract: It has been argued that the power spectrum of the anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) may be effectively degenerate, namely that the observable spectrum does not determine a unique set of cosmological parameters. We describe the physical origin of this degeneracy and show that at small angular scales it is broken by gravitational lensing: effectively degenerate spectra become distinguishable at l ~ 3000 because lensing causes their damping tails to fall at different rates with increasing l. This effect also helps in distinguishing nearly degenerate power spectra such as those of mixed dark matter models. Forthcoming interferometer experiments should provide the means of measuringotherwise degenerate parameters at the 5-25% level.
Degeneracy Breaking of Hydrogen Atom  [PDF]
Agung Trisetyarso,Pantur Silaban
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: The three dimensional rotation group, SO(3), is a symmetry group of the normal hydrogen atom. Each reducible representation of this group can be associated with a degenerate energy level. If this atom is placed in an external magnetic field, the interaction between the orbital magnetic moment with this field will lead to a symmetry breaking where the symmetry group of the atom is a new group distinct from the SO(3) group. This phenomenon describes the normal Zeeman effect, where a degenerate energy level splits into several new energy levels. It is explicitly shown that each of the new energy levels can be associated with an irreducible representation of the new symmetry group.
Mechanisms of degeneracy breaking in pyrochlore antiferromagnets  [PDF]
Doron L. Bergman,Ryuichi Shindou,Gregory A. Fiete,Leon Balents
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.74.134409
Abstract: Motivated by the low temperature magnetization curves of several spinel chromites, we theoretically study classical mechanisms of degeneracy lifting in pyrochlore antiferromagnets. Our main focus is on the coupling of spin exchange to lattice distortions. Prior work by Penc et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 197203 (2004)) has demonstrated that such coupling leads to a robust magnetization plateau at half the saturation moment per spin, in agreement with experiment. We show that a simple Einstein model incorporating local site distortions generates a ``universal'' magnetic order on the plateau, and highlight the distinct predictions of this model from that in Penc et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 197203 (2004)). We also consider the complementary degeneracy-lifting effects of further neighbor exchange interactions. We discuss the implications for transitions off the plateau at both the high field and low field end, as well as at fields close to the saturation value. We predict that under certain circumstances there is spontaneous {\sl uniform} XY magnetization (transverse to the field) for field values just above the plateau. These features may be tested in experiments. While selecting a unique magnetic order in the half magnetization plateau, at zero magnetic field the Einstein model retains an extensive degeneracy, though significantly reduced compared with the pure Heisenberg antiferromagnet.
Breaking the Disk/Halo Degeneracy with Gravitational Lensing  [PDF]
Ariyeh H. Maller,Luc Simard,Puragra Guhathakurta,Jens Hjorth,Andreas O. Jaunsen,Ricardo A. Flores,Joel R. Primack
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/308641
Abstract: The degeneracy between the disk and the dark matter contribution to galaxy rotation curves remains an important uncertainty in our understanding of disk galaxies. Here we discuss a new method for breaking this degeneracy using gravitational lensing by spiral galaxies, and apply this method to the spiral lens B1600+434 as an example. The combined image and lens photometry constraints allow models for B1600+434 with either a nearly singular dark matter halo, or a halo with a sizable core. A maximum disk model is ruled out with high confidence. Further information, such as the circular velocity of this galaxy, will help break the degeneracies. Future studies of spiral galaxy lenses will be able to determine the relative contribution of disk, bulge, and halo to the mass in the inner parts of galaxies.
The Breaking Strain of Neutron Star Crust and Gravitational Waves  [PDF]
C. J. Horowitz,Kai Kadau
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.191102
Abstract: Mountains on rapidly rotating neutron stars efficiently radiate gravitational waves. The maximum possible size of these mountains depends on the breaking strain of neutron star crust. With multi-million ion molecular dynamics simulations of Coulomb solids representing the crust, we show that the breaking strain of pure single crystals is very large and that impurities, defects, and grain boundaries only modestly reduce the breaking strain to around 0.1. Due to the collective behavior of the ions during failure found in our simulations, the neutron star crust is likely very strong and can support mountains large enough so that their gravitational wave radiation could limit the spin periods of some stars and might be detectable in large scale interferometers. Furthermore, our microscopic modeling of neutron star crust material can help analyze mechanisms relevant in magnetar giant and micro flares.
Breaking of valley degeneracy by magnetic field in monolayer MoSe2  [PDF]
David MacNeill,Colin Heikes,Kin Fai Mak,Zachary Anderson,Andor Kormányos,Viktor Zólyomi,Jiwoong Park,Daniel C. Ralph
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.037401
Abstract: Using polarization-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, we investigate valley degeneracy breaking by out-of-plane magnetic field in back-gated monolayer MoSe$_2$ devices. We observe a linear splitting of $-0.22 \frac{\text{meV}}{\text{T}}$ between luminescence peak energies in $\sigma_{+}$ and $\sigma_{-}$ emission for both neutral and charged excitons. The optical selection rules of monolayer MoSe$_2$ couple photon handedness to the exciton valley degree of freedom, so this splitting demonstrates valley degeneracy breaking. In addition, we find that the luminescence handedness can be controlled with magnetic field, to a degree that depends on the back-gate voltage. An applied magnetic field therefore provides effective strategies for control over the valley degree of freedom.
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