Abstract:
We consider RKKY interaction between two magnetic impurities in graphene. The consideration is based on the perturbation theory for the thermodynamic potential in the imaginary time representation. We analyze the symmetry of the RKKY interaction on the bipartite lattice at half filling. Our analytical calculation of the interaction is based on direct evaluation of real space spin susceptibility.

Abstract:
The growing interest in carbon-based spintronics has stimulated a number of recent theoretical studies on the RKKY interaction in graphene, based on which the energetically favourable alignment between magnetic moments embedded in this material can be calculated. The general consensus is that the strength of the RKKY interaction in graphene decays as 1/D3 or faster, where D is the separation between magnetic moments. Such an unusually fast decay for a 2-dimensional system suggests that the RKKY interaction may be too short ranged to be experimentally observed in graphene. Here we show in a mathematically transparent form that a far more long ranged interaction arises when the magnetic moments are taken out of their equilibrium positions and set in motion. We not only show that this dynamic version of the RKKY interaction in graphene decays far more slowly but also propose how it can be observed with currently available experimental methods.

Abstract:
We investigate the effects of nonmagnetic disorder on the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction in graphene by studying numerically the Anderson model with on-site and hopping disorder on a honeycomb lattice at half filling. We evaluate the strength of the interaction as a function of the distance R between two magnetic ions, as well as their lattice positions and orientations. In the clean limit, we find that the strength of the interaction decays as 1/R^3, with its sign and oscillation amplitude showing strong anisotropy. With increasing on-site disorder, the mean amplitude decreases exponentially at distances exceeding the elastic mean free path. At smaller distances, however, the oscillation amplitude increases strongly and its sign changes on the same sublattice for all directions but the armchair direction. For random hopping disorder, no sign change is observed. No significant changes to the geometrical average values of the RKKY interaction are found at small distances, while exponential suppression is observed at distances exceeding the localization length.

Abstract:
In our previous work [1] we calculated RKKY interaction between two magnetic impurities in pristine graphene using the Green’s functions (GF) in the coordinate-imaginary time representation. Now we show that the calculations of the GF in this representation can be simplified by using the Feynman’s trick, which allows to easily calculate RKKY interaction in gapped graphene. We also present calculations of the RKKY interaction in gapped or doped graphene using the coordinate-imaginary frequency representation. Both representations, corresponding to calculation of the bubble diagram in Euclidean space, have an important advantage over those corresponding to calculation in Minkowskii space, which are very briefly reviewed in the Appendix to the present work. The former, in distinction to the latter, operate only with the convergent integrals from the start to the end of the calculation.

Abstract:
Dirac electrons in clean graphene can mediate the interactions between two localized magnetic moments. The functional form of the RKKY interaction in pristine graphene is specified by two main features: (i) an atomic scale oscillatory part determined by a wave vector $\vec Q$ connecting the two valleys. Furthermore with doping another longer range oscillation appears which arise from the existence of an extended Fermi surface characterized by a single momentum scale $k_F$. (ii) $R^{\alpha}$ decay in large distances where the exponent $\alpha=-3$ is a distinct feature of undoped Dirac sea (with a linear dispersion relation) in two dimensions. In this work, we investigate the effect of a few percent vacancies on the above properties. Depending on the doping level, if the chemical potential lies on the linear part of the density of states, the exponent $\alpha$ remains close to -3. Otherwise $\alpha$ reduces towards more negative values which means that the combined effect of vacancies and the randomness in their positions makes it harder for the carriers of the medium to mediate the magnetic interaction. Addition of a few percent of vacancies diminishes the atomic scale oscillations of the RKKY interaction signaling the destruction of two-valley structure of the parent graphene material. Surprisingly by allowing the chemical potential to vary, we find that the longer-range oscillations expected to arise from the existence of a $k_F$ scale in the vacant graphene are absent. This may indicate possible non-Fermi liquid behavior by "alloying" graphene with vacancies. The complete absence of oscillations in heavily vacant graphene can be considered an advantage for applications as a uniform sign of the exchange interaction is desirable for magnetic ordering.

Abstract:
We study Rudermann-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoribbons in the presence of spin orbit interactions and magnetic fields. For this we evaluate the static spin susceptibility tensor in real space in various regimes at zero temperature. In metallic CNTs the RKKY interaction depends strongly on the sublattice and, at the Dirac point, is purely ferromagnetic (antiferromagnetic) for the localized spins on the same (different) sublattice, whereas in semiconducting CNTs the spin susceptibility depends only weakly on the sublattice and is dominantly ferromagnetic. The spin orbit interactions break the SU(2) spin symmetry of the system, leading to an anisotropic RKKY interaction of Ising and Moryia-Dzyaloshinsky form, besides the usual isotropic Heisenberg interaction. All these RKKY terms can be made of comparable magnitude by tuning the Fermi level close to the gap induced by the spin orbit interaction. We further calculate the spin susceptibility also at finite frequencies and thereby obtain the spin noise in real space via the fluctuation-dissipation theorem.

Abstract:
We study the Ruderman-Kittle-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction in the presence of spin polarized two dimensional Dirac fermions. We show that a spin polarization along the z-axis mediates an anisotropic interaction which corresponds to a XXZ model interaction between two magnetic moments. For undoped graphene, while the $x$ part of interaction keeps its constant ferromagnetic sign, its $z$ part oscillates with the distance of magnetic impurities, $R$. A finite doping causes that both parts of the interaction oscillate with $R$. We explore a beating pattern of oscillations of the RKKY interaction along armchair and zigzag lattice directions, which occurs for some certain values of the chemical potential. The two characteristic periods of the beating are determined by inverse of the difference and the sum of the chemical potential and the spin polarization.

Abstract:
A form of an indirect Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY)-like coupling between magnetic on-site impurities in armchair graphene nanoribbons is studied theoretically. The calculations are based on a tight-binding model for a finite nanoribbon system with periodic boundary conditions. A pronounced Friedel-oscillation-like dependence of the coupling magnitude on the impurity position within the nanoribbon resulting from quantum size effects is found and investigated. In particular, the distance dependence of coupling is analysed. For semiconducting nanoribbons, this dependence is exponential-like, resembling the Bloembergen-Rowland interaction. In particular, for metallic nanoribbons, interesting behaviour is found for finite length systems, in which zero-energy states make an important contribution to the interaction. In such situation, the coupling decay with the distance can be then substantially slower.

Abstract:
The growing interest in carbon-based spintronics has stimulated a number of recent theoretical studies on the RKKY interaction in graphene, with the aim of determining the most energetically favourable alignments between embedded magnetic moments. The RKKY interaction in undoped graphene decays faster than expected for conventional two-dimensional materials and recent studies suggest that the adsorption configurations favoured by many transition-metal impurities may lead to even shorter ranged decays and possible sign-changing oscillations. Here we show that these features emerge in a mathematically transparent manner when the symmetry of the configurations is included in the calculation. Furthermore, we show that by breaking the symmetry of the graphene lattice, via uniaxial strain, the decay rate, and hence the range, of the RKKY interaction can be significantly altered. Our results suggest that magnetic interactions between adsorbed impurities in graphene can be manipulated by careful strain engineering of such systems.

Abstract:
We obtain an analytical expression for the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction $J$ in electron or hole doped graphene for linear Dirac bands. The results agree very well with the numerical calculations for the full tight-binding band structure in the regime where the linear band structure is valid. The analytical result, expressed in terms of the Meijer G-function, consists of a product of two oscillatory terms, one coming from the interference between the two Dirac cones and the second coming from the finite size of the Fermi surface. For large distances, the Meijer G-function behaves as a sinusoidal term, leading to the result $J \sim R^{-2} k_F \sin (2 k_F R) {1 + \cos[(K-K').R]}$ for moments located on the same sublattice. The $R^{-2}$ dependence, which is the same for the standard two-dimensional electron gas, is universal irrespective of the sublattice location and the distance direction of the two moments except when $k_F =0$ (undoped case), where it reverts to the $R^{-3}$ dependence. These results correct several inconsistencies found in the literature.