Abstract:
It is numerically demonstrated by means of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code that precession can trigger the dynamo effect in a cylindrical container. This result adds credit to the hypothesis that precession can be strong enough to be one of the sources of the dynamo action in some astrophysical bodies.

Abstract:
The transition to turbulence in a precessing cylindrical vessel is experimentally investigated. Our measurements are performed for a { nearly-resonant} configuration with an initially laminar flow dominated by an inertial mode with azimuthal wave number $m=1$ superimposed on a solid body rotation. By increasing the precession ratio, we observe a transition from the laminar to a non-linear regime, which then breakdowns to turbulence for larger precession ratio. Our measurements show that the transition to turbulence is subcritical, with a discontinuity of the wall-pressure and the power consumption at the threshold $\epsilon_{LT}$. The turbulence is self-sustained below this threshold, describing a bifurcation diagram with a hysteresis. In this range of the control parameters, the turbulent flows can suddenly collapse after a finite duration, leading to a definitive relaminarization of the flow. The average lifetime $\langle \tau \rangle$ of the turbulence increases rapidly when $\epsilon$ tends to $\epsilon_{LT}$.

Abstract:
The flow inside a precessing fluid cavity has been given particular attention since the end of the 19th century in geophysical and industrial contexts. The present study aims at shedding light on the underlying mechanism by which the flow inside a precessing cylindrical annulus transitions from laminar to multiple scale complex structures. We address this problem experimentally using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry to diagnose the fluid velocity in a rotating and precessing cylindrical annulus. When precession is weak, the flow can be described as a superposition of forced inertial modes. Above a critical value of the precession rate, the forced flow couples with two free inertial modes satisfying triadic resonance conditions, leading to the classical growth and collapse. Using a Bayesian approach, we extract the wavenumber, frequency, growth rate and amplitude of each mode involved in the instability. In some cases, we observe for the first time ever experimentally two pairs of free modes coexisting with the forced flow. At larger precession rates, we do not observe triadic resonance any more, instead we observe several harmonics whose frequencies are integer multiples of the rotation frequency.

Abstract:
The nonlinear amplitude equation, which was derived by Jian Yongjun employing expansion of two-time scales in inviscid fluids in a vertically oscillating circular cylindrical vessel, is modified by introducing a damping term due to the viscous dissipation of this system. Instability of the surface wave is analysed and properties of the solutions of the modified equation are determined together with phase-plane trajectories. A necessary condition of forming a stable surface wave is obtained and unstable regions are illustrated. Research results show that the stable pattern of surface wave will not lose its stability to an infinitesimal disturbance.

Abstract:
The deformation kinetics for glassy polymers confined in microscopic domain at very low temperature regime was investigated using a transition-rate-state dependent model considering the shear thinning behavior which means, once material being subjected to high shear rates, the viscosity diminishes with increasing shear rate. The preliminary results show that there might be nearly frictionless fields for rate of deformation due to the almost vanishing shear stress in micropores at very low temperature regime subjected to some surface conditions : The relatively larger roughness (compared to the macroscopic domain) inside micropores and the slip. As the pore size decreases, the surface-to-volume ratio increases and therefore, surface roughness will greatly affect the deformation kinetics in micropores. By using the boundary perturbation method, we obtained a class of temperature and activation energy dependent fields for the deformation kinetics at low temperature regime with the presumed small wavy roughness distributed along the walls of an cylindrical micropore. The critical deformation kinetics of the glassy matter is dependent upon the temperature, activation energy, activation volume, orientation dependent and is proportional to the (referenced) shear rate, the slip length, the amplitude and the orientation of the wavy-roughness.

Abstract:
In this paper, the nonlinear sloshing of liquid in a circle cylindrical tank under pitching excitation is studied analytically for the first time. Owing to the complexity of problem, it is very difficult to solve the nonlinear sloshing of liquid in a container subjected to forced pitching and (or) yawing oscillation by existing methods. Therefore, a method used to analyze this problem is presented. Firstly the nonlinear initial-boundary problem of PDE system for liquid sloshing in a container under pitching and (or) yawing excitation is established. With regard to the previous problem, variational principle and Lagrange function in the form of the volume integration of liquid pressure are obtained. Based on the variation equation and new Lagrange function proposed, nonlinear dynamic system for sloshing of liquid in a circle cylindrical container under pitching and (or) yawing excitation is derived. Subsequently, the nonlinear dynamic system gives the free surface kinematics and dynamic boundary condition. At the same time, the present method greatly reduces the work of formula derivation. Finally, the nonlinear dynamic system is solved by the multiple scale method. The dynamic characteristic of nonlinear liquid sloshing is analyzed in detail. Some kinds of motion which may appear in the liquid sloshing are discussed. Response curves and stable-unstable regions of liquid motion are determined. As to two-dimensional sloshing in a rigid, rectangular, open tank, the comparison between theoretical result by the present method and experiments shows good agreement. So, the present method is proved feasible. By means of the present method, the coupled dynamics of liquid in a tank and structure may also be investigated analytically.

Abstract:
We provide a quantitative description of global minimizers of the Gauss free energy for a liquid droplet bounded in a container in the small volume regime.

Abstract:
We present results from three-dimensional non-linear hydrodynamic simulations of a precession driven flow in cylindrical geometry. The simulations are motivated by a dynamo experiment currently under development at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) in which the possibility of generating a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo will be investigated in a cylinder filled with liquid sodium and simultaneously rotating around two axes. In this study, we focus on the emergence of non-axisymmetric time-dependent flow structures in terms of inertial waves which - in cylindrical geometry - form so-called Kelvin modes. For a precession ratio ${\rm{Po}}=\Omega_p/\Omega_c=0.014$ the amplitude of the forced Kelvin mode reaches up to one fourth of the rotation velocity of the cylindrical container confirming that precession provides a rather efficient flow driving mechanism even at moderate values of ${\rm{Po}}$. More relevant for dynamo action might be free Kelvin modes with higher azimuthal wave number. These free Kelvin modes are triggered by non-linear interactions and may constitute a triadic resonance with the fundamental forced mode when the height of the container matches their axial wave lengths. Our simulations reveal triadic resonances at aspect ratios close to those predicted by the linear theory except around the primary resonance of the forced mode. In that regime we still identify various free Kelvin modes, however, all of them exhibit a retrograde drift around the symmetry axis of the cylinder and none of them can be assigned to a triadic resonance. The amplitudes of the free Kelvin modes always remain below the forced mode but may reach up to 6% of the of the container's angular velocity. The properties of the free Kelvin modes will be used in future simulations of the magnetic induction equation to investigate their ability to provide for dynamo action.

Abstract:
This article is devoted to the study of an incompressible viscous flow of a fluid partly enclosed in a cylindrical container with an open top surface and driven by the constant rotation of the bottom wall. Such type of flows belongs to a group of recirculating lid-driven cavity flows with geometrical axisymmetry and of the prescribed boundary conditions of Dirichlet type -- no-slip on the cavity walls. The top surface of the cylindrical cavity is left open with an imposed stress-free boundary condition, while a no-slip condition with a prescribed rotational velocity is imposed on the bottom wall. The Reynolds regime corresponds to transitional flows with some incursions in the fully laminar regime. The approach taken here revealed new flow states that were investigated based on a fully three-dimensional solution of the Navier--Stokes equations for the free-surface cylindrical swirling flow, without resorting to any symmetry property unlike all other results available in the literature. Theses solutions are obtained through direct numerical simulations based on a Legendre spectral element method.

Abstract:
We revisit the modeling of the properties of the remnant black hole resulting the merger of a black-hole binary as a function of the parameters of the binary. We provide a set of empirical formulas for the final mass, spin and recoil velocity of the final black hole as a function of the mass ratio and individual spins of the progenitor. In order to determine the fitting coefficients for these formulas, we perform a set of 128 new numerical evolutions of precessing, unequal-mass black-hole binaries, and fit to the resulting remnant mass, spin, and recoil. In order to reduce the complexity of the analysis, we chose configurations that have one of the black holes spinning, with dimensionless spin alpha=0.8, at different angles with respect to the orbital angular momentum, and the other non-spinning. In addition to evolving families of binaries with different spin-inclination angles, we also evolved binaries with mass ratios as small as q=1/6. We use the resulting empirical formulas to predict the probabilities of black hole mergers leading to a given recoil velocity, total radiated gravitational energy, and final black hole spin.