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Spherically Symmetric Solutions in Ghost-Free Massive Gravity  [PDF]
D. Comelli,M. Crisostomi,F. Nesti,L. Pilo
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.85.024044
Abstract: Recently, a class of theories of massive gravity has been shown to be ghost-free. We study the spherically symmetric solutions in the bigravity formulation of such theories. In general, the solutions admit both a Lorentz invariant and a Lorentz breaking asymptotically flat behaviour and also fall in two branches. In the first branch, all solutions can be found analitycally and are Schwarzschild-like, with no modification as is found for other classes of theories. In the second branch, exact solutions are hard to find, and relying on perturbation theory, Yukawa-like modifications of the static potential are found. The general structure of the solutions suggests that the bigravity formulation of massive gravity is crucial and more than a tool.
Stars and (Furry) Black Holes in Lorentz Breaking Massive Gravity  [PDF]
Denis Comelli,Fabrizio Nesti,Luigi Pilo
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.83.084042
Abstract: We study the exact spherically symmetric solutions in a class of Lorentz-breaking massive gravity theories, using the effective-theory approach where the graviton mass is generated by the interaction with a suitable set of Stuckelberg fields. We find explicitly the exact black hole solutions which generalizes the familiar Schwarzschild one, which shows a non-analytic hair in the form of a power-like term r^\gamma. For realistic self-gravitating bodies, we find interesting features, linked to the effective violation of the Gauss law: i) the total gravitational mass appearing in the standard 1/r term gets a multiplicative renormalization proportional to the area of the body itself; ii) the magnitude of the power-like hairy correction is also linked to size of the body. The novel features can be ascribed to presence of the goldstones fluid turned on by matter inside the body; its equation of state approaching that of dark energy near the center. The goldstones fluid also changes the matter equilibrium pressure, leading to an upper limit for the graviton mass, m <~ 10^-28 - 10^29 eV, derived from the largest stable gravitational bound states in the Universe.
Bigravity and Lorentz-violating Massive Gravity  [PDF]
D. Blas,C. Deffayet,J. Garriga
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.76.104036
Abstract: Bigravity is a natural arena where a non-linear theory of massive gravity can be formulated. If the interaction between the metrics $f$ and $g$ is non-derivative, spherically symmetric exact solutions can be found. At large distances from the origin, these are generically Lorentz-breaking bi-flat solutions (provided that the corresponding vacuum energies are adjusted appropriately). The spectrum of linearized perturbations around such backgrounds contains a massless as well as a massive graviton, with {\em two} physical polarizations each. There are no propagating vectors or scalars, and the theory is ghost free (as happens with certain massive gravities with explicit breaking of Lorentz invariance). At the linearized level, corrections to GR are proportional to the square of the graviton mass, and so there is no vDVZ discontinuity. Surprisingly, the solution of linear theory for a static spherically symmetric source does {\em not} agree with the linearization of any of the known exact solutions. The latter coincide with the standard Schwarzschild-(A)dS solutions of General Relativity, with no corrections at all. Another interesting class of solutions is obtained where $f$ and $g$ are proportional to each other. The case of bi-de Sitter solutions is analyzed in some detail.
Anti-gravity and/or dark matter contributions from massive gravity  [PDF]
Michael V. Bebronne
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Recently, the static spherically symmetric solution of the gravitational field equations have been found in theories describing massive graviton with spontaneous breaking of the Lorentz invariance. These solutions, which show off two integration constants instead of one in General Relativity, are discussed. They are candidates for modified black holes provided they are stable against small perturbations. These solutions may have both attractive or repulsive behavior at large distances. Therefore, these modified black holes may mimics the presence of dark matter or be a source of anti-gravity.
Lorentz Breaking Massive Gravity in Curved Space  [PDF]
D. Blas,D. Comelli,F. Nesti,L. Pilo
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.80.044025
Abstract: A systematic study of the different phases of Lorentz-breaking massive gravity in a curved background is performed. For tensor and vector modes, the analysis is very close to that of Minkowski space. The most interesting results are in the scalar sector where, generically, there are two propagating degrees of freedom (DOF). While in maximally symmetric spaces ghost-like instabilities are inevitable, they can be avoided in a FRW background. The phases with less than two DOF in the scalar sector are also studied. Curvature allows an interesting interplay with the mass parameters; in particular, we have extended the Higuchi bound of dS to FRW and Lorentz breaking masses. As in dS, when the bound is saturated there is no propagating DOF in the scalar sector. In a number of phases the smallness of the kinetic terms gives rise to strongly coupled scalar modes at low energies. Finally, we have computed the gravitational potentials for point-like sources. In the general case we recover the GR predictions at small distances, whereas the modifications appear at distances of the order of the characteristic mass scale. In contrast with Minkowski space, these corrections may not spoil the linear approximation at large distances.
Nambu-Goldstone and Massive Modes in Gravitational Theories with Spontaneous Lorentz Breaking  [PDF]
Robert Bluhm
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: Spontaneous breaking of local Lorentz symmetry is of interest as a possible mechanism originating from physics at the Planck scale. If such breaking occurs, however, it raises the questions of what the fate of the Nambu-Goldstone modes is, whether a Higgs mechanism can occur, and whether additional massive modes (analogous to the Higgs particle) can appear. A summary of some recent work looking at these questions is presented here.
Hairy Black Holes in Massive Gravity: Thermodynamics and Phase Structure  [PDF]
Fabio Capela,Germano Nardini
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.86.024030
Abstract: The thermodynamic properties of a static and spherically symmetric hairy black hole solution arising in massive gravity with spontaneous Lorentz breaking are investigated. The analysis is carried out by enclosing the black hole in a spherical cavity whose surface is maintained at a fixed temperature $T$. It turns out that the ensemble is well-defined only if the "hair" parameter $Q$ characterizing the solution is conserved. Under this condition we compute some relevant thermodynamic quantities, such as the thermal energy and entropy, and we study the stability and phase structure of the ensemble. In particular, for negative values of the hair parameter, the phase structure is isomorphic to the one of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes in the canonical ensemble. Moreover, the phase-diagram in the plan ($Q,T$) has a line of first-order phase transition that at a critical value of $Q$ terminates in a second-order phase transition. Below this line the dominant phase consists of small, cold black holes that are long-lived and may thus contribute much more to the energy density of the Universe than what is observationally allowed for radiating black holes.
Induced Lorentz and PCT Symmetry Breaking in an External Electromagnetic Field  [PDF]
M. B. Hott,J. L. Tomazelli
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: In this work we derive the Lorentz-PCT-violating effective action for a fermion in a constant and uniform electromagnetic field using the Fock-Schwinger proper time method and extract the exact value of the coefficient of the nonperturbatively induced Chern-Simons term.
Consequences of Spontaneous Lorentz Violation in Gravity  [PDF]
Robert Bluhm
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: A brief summary of some of the main consequences of spontaneous Lorentz violation in gravity is presented, including evasion of a no-go theorem, concomitant spontaneous diffeomorphism breaking, the appearance of massless Nambu-Goldstone modes and massive Higgs modes, and the possibility of a Higgs mechanism in gravity.
Spherically symmetric spacetimes in massive gravity  [PDF]
Thibault Damour,Ian I. Kogan,Antonios Papazoglou
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.67.064009
Abstract: We explore spherically symmetric stationary solutions, generated by ``stars'' with regular interiors, in purely massive gravity. We reexamine the claim that the resummation of non-linear effects can cure, in a domain near the source, the discontinuity exhibited by the linearized theory as the mass m of the graviton tends to zero. First, we find analytical difficulties with this claim, which appears not to be robust under slight changes in the form of the mass term. Second, by numerically exploring the inward continuation of the class of asymptotically flat solutions, we find that, when m is ``small'', they all end up in a singularity at a finite radius, well outside the source, instead of joining some conjectured ``continuous'' solution near the source. We reopen, however, the possibility of reconciling massive gravity with phenomenology by exhibiting a special class of solutions, with ``spontaneous symmetry breaking'' features, which are close, near the source, to general relativistic solutions and asymptote, for large radii, a de Sitter solution of curvature ~m^2.
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