Abstract:
We analyze a 1-d ring structure composed of many two-levels systems, in the limit where only one excitation is present. The two-levels systems are coupled to a common environment, where the excitation can be lost, which induces super and subradiant behavior. Moreover, each two-levels system is coupled to another independent environment, modeled by a classical white noise, simulating a dephasing bath and described by the Haken-Strobl master equation. Single exciton Superradiance, an example of cooperative quantum coherent effect, is destroyed at a critical dephasing strength proportional to the system size, showing robustness of cooperativity to the action of the dephasing environment. We also show that the coupling to a common decay channel contrasts the action of dephasing, driving the entanglement decay to slow down on increasing the system size. Moreover, after a projective measurement which finds the excitation in the system, the entanglement reaches a stationary value, independent of the initial conditions.

Abstract:
We investigate the role of long-lasting quantum coherence in the efficiency of energy transport at room temperature in Fenna-Matthews-Olson photosynthetic complexes. The excitation energy transfer due to the coupling of the light harvesting complex to the reaction center ("sink") is analyzed using an effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. We show that, as the coupling to the reaction center is varied, maximal efficiency in energy transport is achieved in the vicinity of the superradiance transition, characterized by a segregation of the imaginary parts of the eigenvalues of the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. Our results demonstrate that the presence of the sink (which provides a quasi--continuum in the energy spectrum) is the dominant effect in the energy transfer which takes place even in absence of a thermal bath. This approach allows one to study the effects of finite temperature and the effects of any coupling scheme to the reaction center. Moreover, taking into account a realistic electric dipole interaction, we show that the optimal distance from the reaction center to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson system occurs at the superradiance transition, and we show that this is consistent with available experimental data.

Abstract:
We have developed a novel method to describe superradiance and related cooperative and collective effects in a closed form. Using the method we derive a two-atom master equation in which any complexity of atomic levels, semiclassical coupling fields and quantum fluctuations in the fields can be included, at least in principle. As an example, we consider the dynamics of an initially inverted two-level system and show how even such in a simple system phenomena such as the initial radiation burst or broadening due to dipole-dipole interactions occur, but it is also possible to estimate the population of the subradiant state during the radiative decay. Finally, we find that correlation only, not entanglement is responsible for superradiance.

Abstract:
We study the thermodynamics of near-field thermal radiation between two identical polar media at different temperatures. As an application, we consider an idealized energy harvesting process from sources at near room temperature at the nanoscale. We compute the maximum work flux that can be extracted from the radiation in the near-field regime and compare it with the corresponding maximum work flux in the blackbody regime. This work flux is considerably higher in the near-field regime. For materials that support surface phonon polaritons, explicit expressions for the work flux and an upper bound for the efficiency as functions of the surface wave frequency are obtained.

Abstract:
This paper considers a cooperative network with multiple source-destination pairs and one energy harvesting relay. The outage probability experienced by users in this network is characterized by taking the spatial randomness of user locations into consideration. In addition, the cooperation among users is modeled as a canonical coalitional game and the grand coalition is shown to be stable in the addressed scenario. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the accuracy of the developed analytical results.

Abstract:
This paper investigates simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in energy harvesting (EH) relay systems. Unlike existing SWIPT schemes requiring the channel state information (CSI) for coherent information delivery, we propose a noncoherent SWIPT framework for decode-and-forward (DF) relay systems bypassing the need for CSI and consequently saving energy in the network. The proposed SWIPT framework embraces power-splitting noncoherent DF (PS-NcDF) and time-switching noncoherent DF (TS-NcDF) in a unified form, and supports arbitrary M-ary noncoherent frequency-shift keying (FSK) and differential phase-shift keying (DPSK). Exact (noncoherent) maximum-likelihood detectors (MLDs) for PS-NcDF and TS-NcDF are developed in a unified form, which involves integral evaluations yet serves as the optimum performance benchmark for noncoherent SWIPT. To reduce the computational cost of the exact MLDs, we also propose closed-form approximate MLDs achieving near-optimum performance, thus serving as a practical solution for noncoherent SWIPT. Numerical results demonstrate a performance tradeoff between the first and second hops through the adjustment of time switching or power splitting parameters, whose optimal values minimizing the symbol-error rate (SER) are strictly between 0 and 1. We demonstrate that M-FSK results in a significant energy saving over M-DPSK for M >= 8; thus M-FSK may be more suitable for EH relay systems.

Abstract:
Superradiance is a radiation enhancement process that involves dissipative systems. With a 60 year-old history, superradiance has played a prominent role in optics, quantum mechanics and especially in relativity and astrophysics. In General Relativity, black-hole superradiance is permitted by dissipation at the event horizon, that allows for energy, charge and angular momentum extraction from the vacuum, even at the classical level. Black-hole superradiance is intimately connected to the black-hole area theorem, Penrose process, tidal forces and even Hawking radiation, which can be interpreted as a quantum version of black-hole superradiance. Various mechanisms (as diverse as massive fields, magnetic fields, anti-de Sitter boundaries, nonlinear interactions, etc...) can confine the amplified radiation and give rise to strong instabilities. These "black-hole bombs" have applications in searches of dark matter and of physics beyond the Standard Model, are associated to the threshold of formation of new black hole solutions that evade the no-hair theorems, can be studied in the laboratory by devising analog models of gravity, and might even provide a holographic description of spontaneous symmetry breaking and superfluidity through the gauge-gravity duality. This work is meant to provide a unified picture of this multifaceted subject, which was missing in the literature. We focus on the recent developments in the field, and work out a number of novel examples and applications, ranging from fundamental physics to astrophysics.

Abstract:
As most biological species, photosynthetic lifeforms have evolved to function optimally, despite thermal disorder and with fault tolerance. It remains a challenge to understand how this is achieved. To address this challenge the function of the protein-pigment complex photosystem I (PSI) of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus is investigated theoretically. The recently obtained high resolution structure of this complex exhibits an aggregate of 96 chlorophylls that are electronically coupled to function as a light-harvesting antenna complex. This paper constructs an effective Hamiltonian for the chlorophyll aggregate to describe excitation transfer dynamics and spectral properties of PSI. For this purpose, a new kinetic expansion method, the sojourn expansion, is introduced. Our study shows that at room temperature fluctuations of site energies have little effect on the calculated excitation lifetime and quantum yield, which compare favorably with experimental results. The efficiency of the system is found to be robust against `pruning' of individual chlorophylls. An optimality of the arrangement of chlorophylls is identified through the quantum yield in comparison with an ensemble of randomly oriented chlorophylls, though, the quantum yield is seen to change only within a narrow interval in such an ensemble.

The stability of a kind of cooperative models incorporating harvesting is considered in this paper. By analyzing the characteristic roots of the models and constructing suitable Lyapunov functions, we prove that nonnegative equilibrium points of the models are globally asymptotically stable. Further, the corresponding nonautonomous cooperative models have a unique asymptotically periodic solution, which is uniformly asymptotically stable. An example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

Abstract:
This paper investigates the maximum stable throughput of a cooperative cognitive radio system with energy harvesting Primary User and Secondary User. Each PU and SU has a data queue for data storage and a battery for energy storage. These batteries harvest energy from the environment and store it for data transmission in next time slots. The SU is allowed to access the PU channel only when the PU is idle. The SU cooperates with the PU for its data transmission, getting mutual benefits for both users, such that, the PU exploits the SU power to relay a fraction of its undelivered packets, and the SU gets more opportunities to access idle time slots.