Abstract:
$^{1}$H NMR and static susceptibility measurements have been performed in an organic Mott insulator with nearly isotropic triangular lattice, $\kappa$-(BEDT-TTF)$_{2}$Cu$_{2}$(CN)$_{3}$, which is a model system of frustrated quantum spins. The static susceptibility is described by the spin $S$ = 1/2 antiferromagnetic triangular-lattice Heisenberg model with the exchange constant $J$ $\sim$ 250 K. Regardless of the large magnetic interactions, the $^{1}$H NMR spectra show no indication of long-range magnetic ordering down to 32 mK, which is four-orders of magnitude smaller than $J$. These results suggest that a quantum spin liquid state is realized in the close proximity of the superconducting state appearing under pressure.

Abstract:
Novel phases of two dimensional electron systems resulting from new surface or interface modified electronic structures have generated significant interest in material science. We utilize photoemission spectroscopy to show that the near-surface electronic structure of a bulk insulating iridate Sr$_3$Ir$_2$O$_7$ lying near metal-Mott insulator transition exhibit weak metallicity signified by finite electronic spectral weight at the Fermi level. The surface electrons exhibit a unique spin structure resulting from an interplay of spin-orbit, Coulomb interaction and surface quantum magnetism, distinct from a topological insulator state. Our results suggest the experimental realization of a novel quasi two dimensional interacting electron surface ground state, opening the door for exotic quantum entanglement and transport phenomena in iridate-based oxide devices.

Abstract:
We present an anti-ferromagnetically ordered ground state of Na$_{2}$IrO$_{3}$ based on density-functional-theory calculations including both spin-orbit coupling and on-site Coulomb interaction $U$. We show that the splitting of $e_{g}'$ doublet states by the strong spin-orbit coupling is mainly responsible for the intriguing nature of its insulating gap and magnetic ground state. Due to its proximity to the spin-orbit insulator phase, the magnetic ordering as obtained with finite $U$ is found to exhibit a strong in-plane anisotropy. The phase diagram of Na$_{2}$IrO$_{3}$ suggests a possible interplay between spin-orbit insulator and Mott anti-ferromagnetic insulator phases.

Abstract:
In CaIrO3 electronic correlation, spin-orbit coupling, and tetragonal crystal field splitting are predicted to be of comparable strength. However, the nature of its ground state is still object of debate, with contradictory experimental and theoretical results. We probe the ground state of CaIrO3 and assess the effective tetragonal crystal field splitting and spin-orbit coupling at play in this system by means of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. We conclude that insulating CaIrO3 is not a jeff = 1/2 iridate and discuss the consequences of our finding to the interpretation of previous experiments. In particular, we clarify how the Mott insulating state in iridates can be readily extended beyond the jeff = 1/2 ground state.

Abstract:
A simple geometrical characterization of configuration space neighborhoods of local energy minima in spin glass landscapes is found by exhaustive search. Combined with previous Monte Carlo investigations of thermal domain growth, it allows a discussion of the connection between real and configuration space descriptions of low temperature relaxational dynamics. We argue that the part of state-space corresponding to a single growing domain is adequately modeled by a hierarchically organized set of states and that thermal (meta)stability in spin glasses is related to the nearly exponential local density of states present within each trap.

Abstract:
Dynamical correlations of Jeff = 1/2 isospins in the paramagnetic state of spin-orbital Mott insu- lator Sr2IrO4 was revealed by resonant magnetic x-ray diffuse scattering. We found two-dimensional antiferromagnetic fluctuation with a large in-plane correlation length exceeding 100 lattice spacings at even 20 K above the mangnetic ordering temperature. In marked contrast to the naive expecta- tion of strong magnetic anisotropy associated with an enhanced spin-orbit coupling, we discovered isotropic isospin correlation that is well described by the two-dimensional S = 1/2 quantum Heisen- berg model. The estimated antiferromagnetic coupling constant as large as J ~ 0.1 eV that is comparable to the small Mott gap (< 0.5 eV) points the weak and marginal Mott character of this spin-orbital entangled system.

Abstract:
We investigated electronic structure of 5d transition-metal oxide Sr2IrO4 using angle-resolved photoemission, optical conductivity, and x-ray absorption measurements and first-principles band calculations. The system was found to be well described by novel effective total angular momentum Jeff states, in which relativistic spin-orbit (SO) coupling is fully taken into account under a large crystal field. Despite of delocalized Ir 5d states, the Jeff-states form so narrow bands that even a small correlation energy leads to the Jeff = 1/2 Mott ground state with unique electronic and magnetic behaviors, suggesting a new class of the Jeff quantum spin driven correlated-electron phenomena.

Abstract:
We present here ^{13}C and ^{133}Cs NMR spin lattice relaxation T_{1} data in the A15 and fcc-Cs_{3}C_{60} phases for increasing hydrostatic pressure through the transition at p_{c} from a Mott insulator to a superconductor. We evidence that for p>> p_{c} the (T_{1}T)^{-1} data above T_{c} display metallic like Korringa constant values which match quantitatively previous data taken on other A_{3}C_{60} compounds. However below the pressure for which T_{c} goes through a maximum, (T_{1}T)^{-1} is markedly increased with respect to the Korringa values expected in a simple BCS scenario. This points out the importance of electronic correlations near the Mott transition. For p > p_{c} singular T dependences of (T_{1}T)^{-1} are detected for T >> T_{c}. It will be shown that they can be ascribed to a large variation with temperature of the Mott transition pressure p_{c} towards a liquid-gas like critical point, as found at high T for usual Mott transitions.

Abstract:
Simple analytical parametrizations for the ground-state energy of the one-dimensional repulsive Hubbard model are developed. The charge-dependence of the energy is parametrized using exact results extracted from the Bethe-Ansatz. The resulting parametrization is shown to be in better agreement with highly precise data obtained from fully numerical solution of the Bethe-Ansatz equations than previous expressions [Lima et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 146402 (2003)]. Unlike these earlier proposals, the present parametrization correctly predicts a positive Mott gap at half filling for any U>0. The construction is extended to spin-dependent phenomena by parametrizing the magnetization-dependence of the ground-state energy using further exact results and numerical benchmarking. Lastly, the parametrizations developed for the spatially uniform model are extended by means of a simple local-density-type approximation to spatially inhomogeneous models, e.g., in the presence of impurities, external fields or trapping potentials. Results are shown to be in excellent agreement with independent many-body calculations, at a fraction of the computational cost.

Abstract:
We propose a novel quantum spin liquid state that can explain many of the intriguing experimental properties of the low-temperature phase of the organic spin liquid candidate materials. This state of paired fermionic spinons preserves all symmetries of the system, and it has a gapless excitation spectrum with quadratic bands that touch at momentum ~ k = 0. This quadratic band touching is protected by the symmetry of the system. Using variational Monte Carlo techniques, we show that this state has highly competitive energy in the triangular lattice Heisenberg model supplemented with a realistically large ring-exchange term.