Abstract:
The quantum damped harmonic oscillator is described by the master equation with usual Lindblad form. The equation has been solved completely by us in arXiv : 0710.2724 [quant-ph]. To construct the general solution a few facts of representation theory based on the Lie algebra $su(1,1)$ were used. In this paper we treat a general model described by a master equation with generalized Lindblad form. Then we examine the algebraic structure related to some Lie algebras and construct the interesting approximate solution.

Abstract:
In the preceding paper arXiv:0802.3252 [quant-ph] we treated a model given by a master equation with generalized Lindblad form, and examined the algebraic structure related to some Lie algebras and constructed an approximate solution. In this paper we apply a unitary transformation by the squeezing operator to the master equation. Then the generalized Lindblad form is tranformed to the usual Lindblad one, while the (original) Hamiltonian is tranformed to somewhat complicated one. As a result we have two different representations based on the Lie algebra su(1,1). We examine new algebraic structure and construct some approximate solution.

Abstract:
Many current problems of interest in quantum non-equilibrium are described by time-local master equations (TLMEs) for the density matrix that are not of the Lindblad form, that is, that are not strictly probability conserving and/or Markovian. Here we describe an generic approach by which the system of interest that obeys the TLME is coupled to an ancilla, such that the dynamics of the combined system-plus-ancilla is Markovian and thus described by a Lindblad equation. This in turn allows us to recover the properties of the original TLME dynamics from a physical unravelling of this associated Lindblad dynamics. We discuss applications of this generic mapping in two areas of current interest. The first one is that of "thermodynamics of trajectories", where non-Lindblad master equations encode the large-deviation properties of the dynamics, and we show that the relevant large-deviation functions (i.e. dynamical free-energies) can be recovered from appropriate observables of the ancilla. The second one is that of quantum filters, where we show tracking a quantum system undergoing a continuous homodyne measurement with another quantum system of the same size will inherently be inefficient in our framework.

Abstract:
We discuss the laser theory for a single-mode laser with nonlinear gain. We focus in particular on a micromaser which is pumped with a dilute beam of excited atoms crossing the laser cavity. In the weak-coupling regime, an expansion in the coupling strength is developed that preserves the Lindblad form of the master equation, securing the positivity of the density matrix. This expansion breaks rapidly down above threshold. This can be improved with an alternative approach, not restricted to weak coupling: the Lindblad operators are expanded in orthogonal polynomials adapted to the probability distribution for the atom-laser interaction time. Results for the photon statistics and the laser linewidth illustrate the theory.

Abstract:
This work is concerned with determination of the steady-state structure of time-independent Lindblad master equations, especially those possessing more than one steady state. The approach here is to treat Lindblad systems as generalizations of unitary quantum mechanics, extending the intuition of symmetries and conserved quantities to the dissipative case. We combine and apply various results to obtain an exhaustive characterization of the infinite-time behavior of Lindblad evolution, including both the structure of the infinite-time density matrix and its dependence on initial conditions. The effect of the environment in the infinite time limit can therefore be tracked exactly for arbitrary state initialization and without knowledge of dynamics at intermediate time. As a consequence, sufficient criteria for determining the steady state of a Lindblad master equation are obtained. These criteria are knowledge of the initial state, a basis for the steady-state subspace, and all conserved quantities. We give examples of two-qubit dissipation and single-mode $d$-photon absorption where all quantities are determined analytically. Applications of these techniques to quantum information, computation, and feedback control are discussed.

Abstract:
An open quantum system interacting with its environment can be modeled under suitable assumptions as a Markov process, described by a Lindblad master equation. In this work, we derive a general set of fluctuation relations for systems governed by a Lindblad equation. These identities provide quantum versions of Jarzynski-Hatano-Sasa and Crooks relations. In the linear response regime, these fluctuation relations yield a fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) valid for a stationary state arbitrarily far from equilibrium. For a closed system, this FDT reduces to the celebrated Callen-Welton-Kubo formula.

Abstract:
The perturbative master equation (Bloch-Redfield) is extensively used to study dissipative quantum mechanics - particularly for qubits - despite the 25 year old criticism that it violates positivity (generating negative probabilities). We take an arbitrary system coupled to an environment containing many degrees-of-freedom, and cast its perturbative master equation (derived from a perturbative treatment of Nakajima-Zwanzig or Schoeller-Schon equations) in the form of a Lindblad master equation. We find that the equation's parameters are time-dependent. This time-dependence is rarely accounted for, and invalidates Lindblad's dynamical semigroup analysis. We analyze one such Bloch-Redfield master equation (for a two-level system coupled to an environment with a short but non-vanishing memory time), which apparently violates positivity. We show analytically that, once the time-dependence of the parameters is accounted for, positivity is preserved.

Abstract:
The Monte Carlo wave function method or the quantum trajectory/jump approach is a powerful tool to study dissipative dynamics governed by the Markovian master equation, in particular for high-dimensional systems and when it is difficult to simulate directly. In this paper, we extend this method to the non-Markovian case described by the generalized Lindblad master equation. Two examples to illustrate the method are presented and discussed. The results show that the method can correctly reproduce the dissipative dynamics for the system. The difference between this method and the traditional Markovian jump approach and the computational efficiency of this method are also discussed.

Abstract:
A Lindblad master equation for a harmonic oscillator, which describes the dynamics of an open system, is formally solved. The solution yields the spectral resolution of the Liouvillian, that is, all eigenvalues and eigenprojections are obtained. This spectral resolution is discussed in depth in the context of the biorthogonal system and the rigged Hilbert space, and the contribution of each eigenprojection to expectation values of physical quantities is revealed. We also construct the ladder operators of the Liouvillian, which clarify the structure of the spectral resolution.

Abstract:
In the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems, a master equation for the quantum harmonic oscillator interacting with a dissipative environment, in particular with a thermal bath, is derived for the case when the interaction is based on deformed algebra. The equations of motion for observables strongly depend on the deformation function. The expectation values of the number operator and squared number operator are calculated in the limit of a small deformation parameter for the case of zero temperature of the thermal bath. The steady state solution of the equation for the density matrix in the number representation is obtained and its independence of the deformation is shown.