Abstract:
Cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments generally infer a temperature fluctuation from a measured intensity fluctuation through the first term in the Taylor expansion of the Planck function, the relation between the intensity in a given frequency and the temperature. However, with the forthcoming Planck satellite, and perhaps even with the Microwave Anisotropy Probe, the CMB-dipole amplitude will be large enough to warrant inclusion of the next higher order term. To quadratic order in the dipole amplitude, there is an intensity quadrupole induced by the dipole with a frequency dependence given by the second derivative of the Planck function. The Planck satellite should be able to detect this dipole-induced intensity quadrupole and distinguish it through its frequency depdendence from the intrinsic CMB temperature and foreground quadrupoles. This higher-order effect provides a robust pre-determined target that may provide tests of Planck's and MAP's large-angle-fluctuation measurements and of their techniques for multi-frequency foreground subtraction.

Abstract:
We examine the recoil velocity induced by the superposition of the magnetic dipole and quadrupole radiation from a pulsar/magnetar born with rapid rotation. The resultant velocity depends on not the magnitude, but rather the ratio of the two moments and their geometrical configuration. The model does not necessarily lead to high spatial velocity for a magnetar with a strong magnetic field, which is consistent with the recent observational upper bound. The maximum velocity predicted with this model is slightly smaller than that of observed fast-moving pulsars.

Abstract:
A conventional explanation of the dipole anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is in terms of the Doppler effect: our galaxy is moving with respect to CMB frame with $ \sim 600 ~ km ~ s^{-1} $. However, as the deep redshift surveys fail to reveal a convergence of the large scale flow to zero at distances as large as $ d \sim H^{-1} 15,000 ~ km ~ s^{-1} $ (Lauer & Postman, 1994), the uniqueness of the conventional interpretation has to be investigated. A possible alternative might be a cosmological entropy gradient, as suggested by Paczy\'nski & Piran (1990). We find that contrary to that suggestion a quadrupole anisotropy is generically of the same order of magnitude as the dipole anisotropy (or larger) not only for adiabatic but also for iso-curvature initial perturbations. Hence, the observed dipole cannot be explained with a very large scale perturbation which was initially iso-curvature.

Abstract:
We find a superradiant quantum phase transition in the model of triangular molecular magnets coupled to the electric component of a microwave cavity field. The transition occurs when the coupling strength exceeds a critical value which, in sharp contrast to the standard two-level emitters, can be tuned by an external magnetic field. In addition to emitted radiation, the molecules develop an in-plane electric dipole moment at the transition. We estimate that the transition can be detected in state of the art microwave strip-line cavities containing $10^{15}$ molecules.

Abstract:
The largest anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the $\approx 3$ mK dipole assumed to be due to our velocity with respect to the CMB. Over the past ten years the precision of our knowledge of the dipole has increased by a factor of ten. We discuss the most recent measurement of this dipole obtained from the four year COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) as reported by Lineweaver \etal (1996). The inferred velocity of the Local Group is $v_{LG}= 627 \pm 22$ km/s in the direction $\ell = 276\deg \pm 3$, $b= 30\deg \pm 2$. We compare this most recent measurement to a compilation of more than 30 years of dipole observations.

Abstract:
Background: The sharp $1^-$ resonances with enhanced isoscalar dipole transition strengths are observed in many light nuclei at relatively small excitation energies, but their nature was unclear. Purpose: We show those resonances can be attributed to the cluster states with asymmetric configurations such as $\alpha$+$^{16}{\rm O}$. We explain why asymmetric cluster states are strongly excited by the isoscalar dipole transition. We also provide a theoretical prediction of the isoscalar dipole transitions in $^{20}{\rm Ne}$ and $^{44}{\rm Ti}$. Method: The transition matrix is analytically derived to clarify the excitation mechanism. The nuclear model calculations by Brink-Bloch wave function and antisymmetrized molecular dynamics are also performed to provide a theoretical prediction for $^{20}{\rm Ne}$ and $^{44}{\rm Ti}$. Results: It is shown that the transition matrix is as large as the Weisskopf estimate even though the ground state is an ideal shell model state. Furthermore, it is considerably amplified if the ground state has cluster correlation. The nuclear model calculations predict large transition matrix to the $\alpha$+$^{16}{\rm O}$ and $\alpha$+$^{40}{\rm Ca}$ cluster states comparable with or larger than the Weisskopf estimate. Conclusion: We conclude that the asymmetric cluster states are strongly excited by the isoscalar dipole transition. Combined with the isoscalar monopole transition that populates the $0^+$ cluster states, the isoscalar transitions are promising probe for asymmetric clusters.

Abstract:
The observed CMBR dipole is generally interpreted as the consequence of the peculiar motion of the Sun with respect to the reference frame of the CMBR. This article proposes an alternative interpretation in which the observed dipole is the result of isocurvature perturbations on scales larger than the present Hubble radius. These perturbations are produced in the simplest model of double inflation, depending on three parameters. The observed dipole and quadrupole can be explained in this model, while severely constraining its parameters.

Abstract:
This paper presents the calculation of the electric transition dipole moment in a pre-Born-Oppenheimer framework. Electrons and nuclei are treated equally in terms of the parametrization of the non-relativistic total wave function, which is written as a linear combination of basis functions constructed with explicitly correlated Gaussian functions and the global vector representation. The integrals of the electric transition dipole moment are derived corresponding to these basis functions in both the length and the velocity representation. The complete derivation and the calculations are performed in laboratory-fixed Cartesian coordinates without relying on coordinates which separate the center of mass from the translationally invariant degrees of freedom. The effect of the overall motion is eliminated via translationally invariant integral expressions. As a numerical example the electric transition dipole moment is calculated between two rovibronic levels of the H2 molecule assignable to the lowest rovibrational states of the X ^1Sigma^+_g and B ^1Sigma^+_u electronic states in the clamped-nuclei framework. This is the first evaluation of this quantity in a full quantum mechanical treatment without relying on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation.

Abstract:
Thermal fluctuations in the magnetization of interstellar grains will produce magnetic dipole emission at frequencies below ~100 GHz. We show how to calculate absorption and emission from small particles composed of magnetic materials. The Kramers-Kronig relations for a dusty medium are generalized to include the possibility of magnetic grains. The frequency-dependent magnetic permeability is discussed for candidate grain materials, including iron and magnetite. We calculate emission spectra for various interstellar grain candidates. While paramagnetic grains or magnetite grains cannot account for the observed "anomalous" emission from dust in the 14-90 GHz range, stronger magnetic dipole emission will result if a fraction of the grain material is ferromagnetic, as could be the case given the high Fe content of interstellar dust. The observed emission from dust near 90 GHz implies that not more than 5% of interstellar Fe is in the form of metallic iron grains or inclusions (e.g., in "GEMS"). However, we show that if most interstellar Fe is in a moderately ferromagnetic material, it could contribute a substantial fraction of the observed 14-90 GHz emission, perhaps comparable to the contribution from spinning ultrasmall dust grains. The two emission mechanisms can be distinguished by measuring the emission from dark clouds. The expected polarization of magnetic dipole emission is discussed

Abstract:
We are in motion against the cosmic backdrop. This motion is evidenced by the systematic temperature shift - or dipole anisotropy - observed in the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB). Because of the Doppler effect, the temperature of the CMB is 0.1 per cent higher in our direction of motion through the Universe. If our standard cosmological understanding is correct, this dipole should also be present as an enhancement in the surface density of distant galaxies. The main obstacle in finding this signal is the very uneven distribution of nearby galaxies in the Local Supercluster, which drowns out the small cosmological imprint. Here we report the first detection of the expected dipole anisotropy in the galaxy distribution, in a survey of galaxies detected in radio waves. Radio galaxies are mostly located at cosmological distances, so the contamination from nearby clusters should be small. With local radio sources removed, we find a dipole anisotropy in the radio galaxy distribution in the same direction as the CMB, close to the expected amplitude. This result is confirmation of the standard cosmological interpretation of the CMB.