Abstract:
In [Sch05a], it is argued that Boltzmann's intuition, that the psychological arrow of time is necessarily aligned with the thermodynamic arrow, is correct. Schulman gives an explicit physical mechanism for this connection, based on the brain being representable as a computer, together with certain thermodynamic properties of computational processes. [Haw94] presents similar, if briefer, arguments. The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the support for the link between thermodynamics and an arrow of time for computers. The principal arguments put forward by Schulman and Hawking will be shown to fail. It will be shown that any computational process that can take place in an entropy increasing universe, can equally take place in an entropy decreasing universe. This conclusion does not automatically imply a psychological arrow can run counter to the thermodynamic arrow. Some alternative possible explana- tions for the alignment of the two arrows will be briefly discussed.

Abstract:
In any physical theory that admits true indeterminism, the thermodynamic arrow of time can arise regardless of the system's initial conditions. Hence on such theories time's arrow emerges out of the basic physical interactions. The example of the GRW theory is studied in detail.

Abstract:
Inflation allows the problem of the Arrow of time to be understood as a question about the structure of spacetime: why was the intrinsic curvature of the earliest spatial sections so much better behaved than it might have been? This is really just the complement of a more familiar problem: what mechanism prevents the extrinsic curvature of the earliest spatial sections from diverging, as classical General Relativity suggests? We argue that the stringy version of "creation from nothing", sketched by Ooguri, Vafa, and Verlinde, solves both of these problems at once. The argument, while very simple, hinges on some of the deepest theorems in global differential geometry. These results imply that when a spatially toral spacetime is created from nothing, the earliest spatial sections are forced to be [quasi-classically] exactly locally isotropic. This local isotropy, in turn, forces the inflaton into its minimal-entropy state. The theory explains why the Arrow does not reverse in black holes or in a cosmic contraction, if any.

Abstract:
It is natural important question for us to ask what the nonextensive parameter stands for when Tsallis statistics is applied to the self-gravitating systems. In this paper, some properties of the nonextensive parameter and Tsallis equilibrium distribution for the self-gravitating system are discussed in the framework of nonextensive kinetic theory. On the basis of the solid mathematical foundation, the nonextensive parameter can be expressed by a formula with temperature gradient and the gravitational potential and can be presented the physical meaning with regard to the non-isothermal (nonequilibrium stationary state) nature of the systems with long-range interactions. We come to the conclusion that Tsallis equilibrium distribution is corresponding to the physical state of self-gravitating system at the hydrostatic equilibrium.

Abstract:
The existence of a non-thermodynamic arrow of time was demonstrated in a recent paper (Mod.Phys.Lett. A13, 1265 (1998)), in which a model of non-local Quantum Electrodynamics was formulated through the principle of gauge invariance. In this paper we show that the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation is capable of making every particle of the universe (except those which are not acted upon by an electromagnetic field) follow this arrow of time.

The arrow
of time is one of the most difficult questions in modern physics. In this
paper, a damping vibration equation is discussed, which shows that this
equation reflects the arrow of time. We have further discussed that the concept
of “the arrow of time” in this equation is quite different from the
thermodynamic arrow.

Abstract:
We believe the following three ingredients are enough to explain the mystery of the arrow of time: (1). equations of dynamics of gas molecules, (2). chaotic instabilities of the equations of dynamics, (3). unavoidable perturbations to the gas molecules. The level of physical rigor or mathematical rigor that can be reached for such a theory is unclear.

Abstract:
The interface between classical physics and quantum physics is explained from the point of view of quantum information theory (Feynman Processes). The interpretation depends on a hefty sacrifice: the classical determinism or the arrow of time. The wave-particle duality steams from the qubit model, as the root of creation and annihilation of possibilities. A few key experiments are briefly reviewed from the above perspective: quantum erasure, delayed-choice and wave-particle correlation. The CPT-Theorem is interpreted in the framework of categories with duality and a timeless interpretation of the Feynman Processes is proposed. A connection between the fine-structure constant and algebraic number theory is suggested.

Abstract:
This paper is a discussion about the relationship between time and information. We argue that the direction of arrow of time is related to the directivity of information copying that occurs in Nature.

Abstract:
This paper extends the work of a previous paper [arXiv:1208.2611] on the flow of time, to consider the origin of the arrow of time. It proposes that a `past condition' cascades down from cosmological to micro scales, being realized in many microstructures and setting the arrow of time at the quantum level by top-down causation. This physics arrow of time then propagates up, through underlying emergence of higher level structures, to geology, astronomy, engineering, and biology. The appropriate space-time picture to view all this is an emergent block universe (`EBU'), that recognizes the way the present is different from both the past and the future. This essential difference is the ultimate reason the arrow of time has to be the way it is.