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A Dynamical Origin for Brown Dwarfs  [PDF]
Bo Reipurth,Cathie Clarke,Eduardo Delgado-Donate
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: Brown dwarfs may have such low masses because they are prematurely ejected from small unstable multiple systems, while the members are still actively building up their masses. We demonstrate that this scenario is consistent with all currently existing observations of brown dwarfs, and propose further observational tests. We review the status of the latest realistic numerical simulations of disintegrating small N clusters, which show that many of the ejected members end up with masses that are substellar, drifting away from their birth region with velocities rarely exceeding 2 km/s.
The "Mysterious" Origin of Brown Dwarfs  [PDF]
Paolo Padoan,AAke Nordlund
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/345413
Abstract: Hundreds of brown dwarfs (BDs) have been discovered in the last few years in stellar clusters and among field stars. BDs are almost as numerous as hydrogen burning stars and so a theory of star formation should also explain their origin. The ``mystery'' of the origin of BDs is that their mass is two orders of magnitude smaller than the average Jeans' mass in star--forming clouds, and yet they are so common. In this work we investigate the possibility that gravitationally unstable protostellar cores of BD mass are formed directly by the process of turbulent fragmentation. Supersonic turbulence in molecular clouds generates a complex density field with a very large density contrast. As a result, a fraction of BD mass cores formed by the turbulent flow are dense enough to be gravitationally unstable. We find that with density, temperature and rms Mach number typical of cluster--forming regions, turbulent fragmentation can account for the observed BD abundance.
Stellar, brown dwarf and multiple star properties from a radiation hydrodynamical simulation of star cluster formation  [PDF]
Matthew R. Bate
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19955.x
Abstract: We report the statistical properties of stars, brown dwarfs and multiple systems obtained from the largest radiation hydrodynamical simulation of star cluster formation to date that resolves masses down to the opacity limit for fragmentation (a few Jupiter masses). The initial conditions are identical to those of previous barotropic calculations published by Bate, but this time the calculation is performed using a realistic equation of state and radiation hydrodynamics. The calculation uses sink particles to model 183 stars and brown dwarfs, including 28 binaries and 12 higher-order multiple systems, the properties of which are compared the results from observational surveys. We find that the radiation hydrodynamical/sink particle simulation reproduces many observed stellar properties very well. In particular, whereas using a barotropic equation of state produces more brown dwarfs than stars, the inclusion of radiative feedback results in a stellar mass function and a ratio of brown dwarfs to stars in good agreement with observations of Galactic star-forming regions. In addition, many of the other statistical properties of the stars and brown dwarfs are in reasonable agreement with observations, including multiplicity as a function of primary mass, the frequency of very-low-mass binaries, and general trends for the mass ratio and separation distributions of binaries. We also examine the velocity dispersion of the stars, the distributions of disc truncation radii due to dynamical interactions, and coplanarity of orbits and sink particle spins in multiple systems. Overall, the calculation produces a cluster of stars whose statistical properties are difficult to distinguish from observed systems, implying that gravity, hydrodynamics, and radiative feedback are the primary ingredients for determining the origin of the statistical properties of low-mass stars.
Outflows and disks of brown dwarfs with SMA, CARMA and ALMA  [cached]
Phan-Bao Ngoc,Lee Chin-Fei,Ho Paul,Martín Eduardo
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20134714001
Abstract: Brown dwarfs are on the dividing line between planets and stars. Up to date, about 1,000 brown dwarfs, including the coolest known brown dwarfs with temperatures of ~300 K as cool as the human body, have been discovered. However, the origin of these objects is still not well understood. Here we report our study of molecular outflows and disks of young very-low mass stars and brown dwarfs in ρ Ophiuchi and Taurus using the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). The observations of brown dwarfs at early stages provide key information to understand their formation mechanism as well as planet formation around these very low-mass objects. We also discuss future observations of brown dwarfs with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA).
Infrared Searches for Dark Matter in the Form of Brown Dwarfs  [PDF]
E. J. Kerins,B. J. Carr
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/266.4.775
Abstract: Brown dwarfs, stars with insufficient mass to burn hydrogen, could contribute to the dark matter in the Galactic disk, galactic halos or even a background critical density. We consider the detectability of such brown dwarfs in various scenarios, extending previous work by allowing for the possibility that they may have an extended mass spectrum or be clumped into dark clusters. We investigate the constraints placed on such scenarios by the \iras survey. Whilst an extrapolation of the mass function of visible disk stars makes it unlikely that brown dwarfs comprise all of the proposed disk dark matter, \iras does not exclude brown dwarfs providing the dark matter in our own halo or a cosmological background. Neither does it improve on existing dynamical constraints on the mass and radius of brown dwarf clusters in our halo. Future satellites such as \iso and \sirtf will either detect brown dwarfs or brown dwarf clusters or else severely constrain their contribution to the dark matter.
The Formation Mechanism of Brown Dwarfs  [PDF]
Matthew R. Bate,Ian A. Bonnell,Volker Bromm
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05539.x
Abstract: We present results from the first hydrodynamical star formation calculation to demonstrate that brown dwarfs are a natural and frequent product of the collapse and fragmentation of a turbulent molecular cloud. The brown dwarfs form via the fragmentation of dense molecular gas in unstable multiple systems and are ejected from the dense gas before they have been able to accrete to stellar masses. Thus, they can be viewed as `failed stars'. Approximately three quarters of the brown dwarfs form in gravitationally-unstable circumstellar discs while the remainder form in collapsing filaments of molecular gas. These formation mechanisms are very efficient, producing roughly the same number of brown dwarfs as stars, in agreement with recent observations. However, because close dynamical interactions are involved in their formation, we find a very low frequency of binary brown dwarf systems ($\lsim 5$%) and that those binary brown dwarf systems that do exist must be close $\lsim 10$ AU. Similarly, we find that young brown dwarfs with large circumstellar discs (radii $\gsim 10$ AU) are rare ($\approx 5$%).
Disks around Young Brown Dwarfs  [PDF]
Michael C. Liu
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: We present some results from a systematic survey for disks around spectroscopically identified young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars. We find that ~75% of our sample show intrinsic IR excesses, indicative of circum(sub)stellar disks. The observed excesses are correlated with Halpha emission, consistent with a common disk accretion origin. Because the excesses are modest, conventional analyses using only IR colors would have missed most of the sources with disks. In the same star-forming regions, we find that disks around brown dwarfs and T Tauri stars are contemporaneous; assuming coevality, this demonstrates that substellar disks are at least as long-lived as stellar disks. Altogether, the frequency and properties of circumstellar disks are similar from the stellar regime down to the substellar and planetary-mass regime. This offers compelling evidence of a common origin for most stars and brown dwarfs.
The Formation of Brown Dwarfs as Ejected Stellar Embryos  [PDF]
Bo Reipurth,Cathie Clarke
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/321121
Abstract: We conjecture that brown dwarfs are substellar objects because they have been ejected from small newborn multiple systems which have decayed in dynamical interactions. In this view, brown dwarfs are stellar embryos for which the star formation process was aborted before the hydrostatic cores could build up enough mass to eventually start hydrogen burning. The disintegration of a small multiple system is a stochastic process, which can be described only in terms of the half-life of the decay. A stellar embryo competes with its siblings in order to accrete infalling matter, and the one that grows slowest is most likely to be ejected. With better luck, a brown dwarf would therefore have become a normal star. This interpretation of brown dwarfs readily explains the rarity of brown dwarfs as companions to normal stars (aka the ``brown dwarf desert''), the absence of wide brown dwarf binaries, and the flattening of the low mass end of the initial mass function. Possible observational tests of this scenario include statistics of brown dwarfs near Class 0 sources, and the kinematics of brown dwarfs in star forming regions while they still retain a kinematic signature of their expulsion. Because the ejection process limits the amount of gas brought along in a disk, it is predicted that substellar equivalents to the classical T Tauri stars should be very rare.
The dynamical evolution of low-mass hydrogen-burning stars, brown dwarfs and planetary-mass objects formed through disc fragmentation  [PDF]
Yun Li,M. B. N. Kouwenhoven,D. Stamatellos,S. P. Goodwin
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/805/2/116
Abstract: Theory and simulations suggest that it is possible to form low-mass hydrogen-burning stars, brown dwarfs and planetary-mass objects via disc fragmentation. As disc fragmentation results in the formation of several bodies at comparable distances to the host star, their orbits are generally unstable. Here, we study the dynamical evolution of these objects. We set up the initial conditions based on the outcomes of the SPH simulations of Stamatellos & Whitworth, and for comparison we also study the evolution of systems resulting from lower-mass fragmenting discs. We refer to these two sets of simulations as set 1 and set 2. At 10 Myr, approximately half of the host stars have one companion left, and approximately 22% (set 1) to 9.8% (set 2) of the host stars are single. Systems with multiple secondaries in relatively stable configurations are common (about 30% and 44%, respectively). The majority of the companions are ejected within 1 Myr with velocities mostly below 5 km/s, with some runaway escapers with velocities over 30 km/s. About 6% (set 1) and 2% (set 2) of the companions pair up into very low-mass binary systems. The majority of these pairs escape as very low-mass binaries, while others remain bound to the host star in hierarchical configurations (often with retrograde inner orbits). Physical collisions with the host star (0.43 and 0.18 events per host star for set 1 and set 2) and between companions (0.08 and 0.04 events per host star for set 1 and set 2) are relatively common and their frequency increases with increasing disc mass. Our study predicts observable properties of very low-mass binaries, low-mass hierarchical systems, the brown dwarf desert, and free-floating brown dwarfs and planetary-mass objects in and near young stellar groupings, which can be used to distinguish between different formation scenarios of very low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and planetary-mass objects.
Brown Dwarfs  [PDF]
Ben R. Oppenheimer,S. R. Kulkarni,John R. Stauffer
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: After a discussion of the physical processes in brown dwarfs, we present a complete, precise definition of brown dwarfs and of planets inspired by the internal physics of objects between 0.1 and 0.001 M_sun. We discuss observational techniques for characterizing low-luminosity objects as brown dwarfs, including the use of the lithium test and cooling curves. A brief history of the search for brown dwarfs leads to a detailed review of known isolated brown dwarfs with emphasis on those in the Pleiades star cluster. We also discuss brown dwarf companions to nearby stars, paying particular attention to Gliese 229B, the only known cool brown dwarf.
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