Abstract:
Due to Klein tunneling, electrostatic potentials are unable to confine Dirac electrons. We show that it is possible to confine massless Dirac fermions in a monolayer graphene sheet by inhomogeneous magnetic fields. This allows one to design mesoscopic structures in graphene by magnetic barriers, e.g. quantum dots or quantum point contacts.

Abstract:
The recent theoretical prediction and experimental realization of topological insulators (TI) has generated intense interest in this new state of quantum matter. The surface states of a three-dimensional (3D) TI such as Bi_2Te_3, Bi_2Se_3 and Sb_2Te_3 consist of a single massless Dirac cones. Crossing of the two surface state branches with opposite spins in the materials is fully protected by the time reversal (TR) symmetry at the Dirac points, which cannot be destroyed by any TR invariant perturbation. Recent advances in thin-film growth have permitted this unique two-dimensional electron system (2DES) to be probed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS). The intriguing TR symmetry protected topological states were revealed in STM experiments where the backscattering induced by non-magnetic impurities was forbidden. Here we report the Landau quantization of the topological surface states in Bi_2Se_3 in magnetic field by using STM/STS. The direct observation of the discrete Landau levels (LLs) strongly supports the 2D nature of the topological states and gives direct proof of the nondegenerate structure of LLs in TI. We demonstrate the linear dispersion of the massless Dirac fermions by the square-root dependence of LLs on magnetic field. The formation of LLs implies the high mobility of the 2DES, which has been predicted to lead to topological magneto-electric effect of the TI.

Abstract:
Dirac fermions in condensed matter physics hold great promise for novel fundamental physics, quantum device and data storage applications. IV-VI semiconductors, in the inverted regime, have been recently shown to exhibit massless topological surface Dirac fermions protected by crystalline symmetry, as well as massive bulk Dirac fermions. Under a strong magnetic field (B), both surface and bulk states are quantized into Landau levels that disperse as B^1/2, and are thus difficult to distinguish. In this work, magneto-optical absorption is used to probe the Landau levels of high mobility Bi-doped Pb0.54Sn0.46Te topological crystalline insulator (111)-oriented films. The high mobility achieved in these thin film structures allows us to probe and distinguish the Landau levels of both surface and bulk Dirac fermions and extract valuable quantitative information about their physical properties. This work paves the way for future magnetooptical and electronic transport experiments aimed at manipulating the band topology of such materials.

Abstract:
We study the relations between massless Dirac fermions in an electromagnetic field and atoms in quantum optics. After getting the solutions of the energy spectrum, we show that it is possible to reproduce the 2D Dirac Hamiltonian, with all its quantum relativistic effects, in a controllable system as a single trapped ion through the Jaynes--Cummings and anti-Jaynes--Cummings models. Also we show that under certain conditions the evolution of the Dirac Hamiltonian provides us with Rashba spin-orbit and linear Dresselhaus couplings. Considering the multimode multiphoton Jaynes-Cummings model interacting with N modes of electromagnetic field prepared in general pure quantum states, we analyze the Rabi oscillation. Evaluating time evolution of the Dirac position operator, we determine the Zitterbewegung frequency and the corresponding oscillating term as function of the electromagnetic field.

Abstract:
Multilayer (TiO$_2$)$_m$/(VO$_2$)$_n$ nanostructures ($d^1$ - $d^0$ interfaces with no polar discontinuity) show a metal-insulator transition with respect to the VO$_2$ layer thickness in first principles calculations. For $n$ $\geq$ 5 layers, the system becomes metallic, while being insulating for $n$ = 1 and 2. The metal-insulator transition occurs through a semi-Dirac point phase for $n$ = 3 and 4, in which the Fermi surface is point-like and the electrons behave as massless along the zone diagonal in k-space and as massive fermions along the perpendicular direction. We provide an analysis of the evolution of the electronic structure through this unprecedented insulator-to-metal transition, and identify it as resulting from quantum confinement producing a non-intuitive orbital ordering on the V $d^1$ ions, rather than being a specific oxide interface effect. Spin-orbit coupling does not destroy the semi-Dirac point for the calculated ground state, where the spins are aligned along the rutile c-axis, but it does open a substantial gap if the spins lie in the basal plane.

Abstract:
We propose a novel scheme to simulate and observe massless Dirac fermions with cold atoms in a square optical lattice. A U(1) adiabatic phase is created by two laser beams for the tunneling of atoms between neighbor lattice sites. Properly adjusting the tunneling phase, we find that the energy spectrum has conical points in per Brillouin zone where band crossing occurs. Near these crossing points the quasiparticles and quasiholes can be considered as massless Dirac fermions. Furthermore, the anisotropic effects of massless Dirac fermions are obtained in the present square lattice model. The Dirac fermions as well as the anisotropic behaviors realizeded in our system can be experimentally detected with the Bragg spectroscopy technique.

Abstract:
Graphene grown on Fe(110)by chemical vapor deposition using propylene is investigated by means of angle-resolved photoemission. The presence of massless Dirac fermions is clearly evidenced by the observation of a fully intact Dirac cone. Unlike Ni(111) and Co(0001), the Fe(110) imposes a strongly anisotropic quasi-one-dimensional structure on the graphene. Certain signatures of a superlattice effect appear in the dispersion of its \sigma-bands but the Dirac cone does not reveal any detectable superlattice or quantum-size effects although the graphene corrugation is twice as large as in the established two-dimensional graphene superlattice on Ir(111).

Abstract:
We study 2+1 dimensional massless Dirac fermions and bosons coupled to a U(1) gauge field as a model for underdoped cuprates. We find that the uniform susceptibility and the specific heat coefficient are logarithmically enhanced (compared to linear-in-T behavior) due to the fluctuation of transverse gauge field which is the only massless mode at finite boson density. We analyze existing data, and find good agreement in the spin gap phase. Within our picture, the drop of the susceptibility below the superconducting T_c arises from the suppression of gauge fluctuations.

Abstract:
Motivated by recent graphene transport experiments, we have undertaken a numerical study of the conductivity of disordered two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions. Our results reveal distinct differences between the cases of short-range and Coulomb randomly distributed scatterers. We speculate that this behavior is related to the Boltzmann transport theory prediction of dirty-limit behavior for Coulomb scatterers.

Abstract:
In this paper we study scattering of two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions by a potential that depends on a single Cartesian variable. Depending on the energy of the incoming particle and its angle of incidence, there are three different regimes of scattering. To find the reflection and transmission coefficients in these regimes, we apply the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB), also called semiclassical, approximation. We use the method of comparison equations to extend our prediction to nearly normal incidence, where the conventional WKB method should be modified due to the degeneracy of turning points. We compare our results to numerical calculations and find good agreement.