Abstract:
A system of multiple open magnetic flux tubes spanning the solar photosphere and lower corona is modelled analytically, within a realistic stratified atmosphere subject to solar gravity. This extends results for a single magnetic flux tube in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, described in Gent et al. (MNRAS, 435, 689, 2013). Self-similar magnetic flux tubes are combined to form magnetic structures, which are consistent with high-resolution observations. The observational evidence supports the existence of strands of open flux tubes and loops persisting in a relatively steady state. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes, for which an analytic solution to the plasma density and pressure distribution is possible, are combined. We calculate the appropriate balancing forces, applying to the equations of momentum and energy conservation to preserve equilibrium. Multiplex flux tube configurations are observed to remain relatively stable for up to a day or more, and it is our aim to apply our model as the background condition for numerical studies of energy transport mechanisms from the solar surface to the corona. We apply magnetic field strength, plasma density, pressure and temperature distributions consistent with observational and theoretical estimates for the lower solar atmosphere. Although each flux tube is identical in construction apart from the location of the radial axis, combinations can be applied to generate a non-axisymmetric magnetic field with multiple non-uniform flux tubes. This is a considerable step forward in modelling the realistic magnetized three-dimensional equilibria of the solar atmosphere.

Abstract:
Motivated by the observational results of Braun (1995), we extend the model of Hanson & Cally (2014) to address the effect of multiple scattering of f and p-modes by an ensemble of thin vertical magnetic flux tubes in the surface layers of the Sun. As in observational Hankel analysis we measure the scatter and phase shift from an incident cylindrical wave in a coordinate system roughly centred in the core of the ensemble. It is demonstrated that, although thin flux tubes are unable to interact with high order fluting modes individually, they can indirectly absorb energy from these waves through the scatters of kink and sausage components. It is also shown how the distribution of absorption and phase shift across the azimuthal order m depends strongly on the tube position, as well as on the individual tube characteristics. This is the first analytical study into an ensembles multiple scattering regime, that is embedded within a strati?ed atmosphere.

Abstract:
The eruption of multiple flux tubes in a magnetised plasma atmosphere is proposed as a mechanism for explosive release of energy in plasmas. Linearly stable isolated flux tubes are shown to be metastable in a box model magnetised atmosphere in which ends of the field lines are embedded in conducting walls. The energy released by destabilising such field lines can be a significant fraction of the gravitational energy stored in the system. This energy can be released in a fast dynamical time.

Abstract:
A single open magnetic flux tube spanning the solar photosphere (solar radius R) and the lower corona (R + 10 Mm) is modelled in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium within a realistic stratified atmosphere subject to solar gravity. Such flux tubes are observed to remain relatively stable for up to a day or more, and it is our aim to apply the model as the background condition for numerical studies of energy transport mechanisms from the surface to the corona. We solve analytically an axially symmetric 3D structure for the model, with magnetic field strength, plasma density, pressure and temperature all consistent with observational and theoretical estimates. The self similar construction ensures the magnetic field is divergence free. The equation of pressure balance for this particular set of flux tubes can be integrated analytically to find the pressure and density corrections required to preserve the magnetohydrostatic equilibrium. The model includes a number of free parameters, which makes the solution applicable to a variety of other physical problems and it may therefore be of more general interest.

Abstract:
The effects of both density stratification and magnetic field expansion on torsional Alfven waves in magnetic flux tubes are studied. The frequencies, the period ratio P1/P2 of the fundamental and its first-overtone, and eigenfunctions of torsional Alfven modes are obtained. Our numerical results show that the density stratification and magnetic field expansion have opposite effects on the oscillating properties of torsional Alfven waves.

Abstract:
We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of the rise and fragmentation of twisted, initially horizontal magnetic flux tubes which evolve into emerging Omega-loops. The flux tubes rise buoyantly through an adiabatically stratified plasma that represents the solar convection zone. The MHD equations are solved in the anelastic approximation, and the results are compared with studies of flux tube fragmentation in two dimensions. We find that if the initial amount of field line twist is below a critical value, the degree of fragmentation at the apex of a rising Omega-loop depends on its three-dimensional geometry: the greater the apex curvature of a given Omega-loop, the lesser the degree of fragmentation of the loop as it approaches the photosphere. Thus, the amount of initial twist necessary for the loop to retain its cohesion can be reduced substantially from the two-dimensional limit. The simulations also suggest that as a fragmented flux tube emerges through a relatively quiet portion of the solar disk, extended crescent-shaped magnetic features of opposite polarity should form and steadily recede from one another. These features eventually coalesce after the fragmented portion of the Omega-loop emerges through the photosphere.

Abstract:
Three-dimensional numerical simulations have been used to study the scattering of a surface-gravity wave packet by vertical magnetic flux tubes, with radii from 200 km to 3 Mm, embedded in stratified polytropic atmosphere. The scattered wave was found to consist primarily of m=0 (axisymmetric) and m=1 modes. It was found that the ratio of the amplitude of these two modes is strongly dependant on the radius of the flux tube: The kink mode is the dominant mode excited in tubes with a small radius while the sausage mode is dominant for large tubes. Simulations of this type provide a simple, efficient and robust way to start understanding the seismic signature of flux tubes, which have recently began to be observed.

Abstract:
We study the combined effects of convection and radiative diffusion on the evolution of thin magnetic flux tubes in the solar interior. Radiative diffusion is the primary supplier of heat to convective motions in the lower convection zone, and it results in a heat input per unit volume of magnetic flux tubes that has been ignored by many previous thin flux tube studies. We use a thin flux tube model subject to convection taken from a rotating spherical shell of turbulent, solar-like convection as described by Weber, Fan, and Miesch (2011, Astrophys. J., 741, 11; 2013, Solar Phys., 287, 239), now taking into account the influence of radiative heating on flux tubes of large-scale active regions. Our simulations show that flux tubes of less than or equal to 60 kG subject to solar-like convective flows do not anchor in the overshoot region, but rather drift upward due to the increased buoyancy of the flux tube earlier in its evolution as a result of the inclusion of radiative diffusion. Flux tubes of magnetic field strengths ranging from 15 kG to 100 kG have rise times of less than or equal to 0.2 years, and exhibit a Joy's Law tilt-angle trend. Our results suggest that radiative heating is an effective mechanism by which flux tubes can escape from the stably stratified overshoot region, and that flux tubes do not necessarily need to be anchored in the overshoot region to produce emergence properties similar to those of active regions on the Sun.

Abstract:
Motivated by the question of how to distinguish seismically between monolithic and cluster models of sunspots, we have simulated the propagation of an $f$-mode wave packet through two identical small magnetic flux tubes (R=200 km), embedded in a stratified atmosphere. We want to study the effect of separation $d$ and incidence angle $\chi$ on the scattered wave. We have demonstrated that the horizontal compact pair of tubes ($d/R=2$, $\chi=0$) oscillate as a single tube when the incident wave is propagating, which gives a scattered wave amplitude of about twice that from a single tube. The scattered amplitude decreases with increasing $d$ when $d$ is about $\lambda/2\pi$ where $\lambda$ is the wavelength of the incident wave packet. In this case the individual tubes start to oscillate separately in the manner of near-field scattering. When $d$ is about twice of $\lambda/2\pi$, scattering from individual tubes reaches the far-field regime, giving rise to coherent scattering with an amplitude similar to the case of the compact pair of tubes. For perpendicular incidence ($\chi=\pi/2$), the tubes oscillate simultaneously with the incident wave packet. Moreover, simulations show that a compact cluster oscillates almost as a single individual small tube and acts more like a scattering object, while a loose cluster shows multiple-scattering in the near-field and the absorption is largest when $d$ within the cluster is about $\lambda/2\pi$. This is the first step to understand the seismic response of a bundle of magnetic flux tubes in the context of sunspot and plage helioseismology.

Abstract:
Recent ground- and space-based observations reveal the presence of small-scale motions between convection cells in the solar photosphere. In these regions small-scale magnetic flux tubes are generated due to the interaction of granulation motion and background magnetic field. This paper studies the effects of these motions, on magnetohydrodynamic wave excitation from broadband photospheric drivers. Numerical experiments of linear magnetohydrodynamic wave propagation in a magnetic flux tube embedded in a realistic gravitationally stratified solar atmosphere between the photosphere and the low choromosphere (above $\beta=1$) are performed. Horizontal and vertical velocity field drivers mimic granular buffeting and solar global oscillations. A uniform torsional driver as well as Archimedean and logarithmic spiral drivers mimic observed torsional motions in the solar photosphere. The results are analysed using a novel method for extracting the parallel, perpendicular and azimuthal components of the perturbations, which caters for both the linear and non-linear case. Employing this method yields the identification of the wave modes excited in the numerical simulations and enables a comparison of excited modes via velocity perturbations and wave energy flux. The wave energy flux distribution is calculated, to enable the quantification of the relative strengths of excited modes. The torsional drivers excite primarily Alfv\'en modes (~60% of the total flux) with small contributions from the slow kink mode, and, for the logarithmic spiral driver, small amounts of slow sausage mode. The horizontal and vertical drivers excite primarily slow kink or fast sausage modes respectively, with small variations dependent upon flux surface radius.