Abstract:
We consider how the mass of the black hole decreases by the Hawking radiation in the Vaidya spacetime, using the concept of dynamical horizon equation, proposed by Ashtekar and Krishnan. Using the formula for the change of the dynamical horizon, we derive an equation for the mass incorporating the Hawking radiation. It is shown that final state is the Minkowski spacetime in our particular model.

Abstract:
As a simple but important example of dynamical black hole, we analysis the dynamical black hole in $n$-dimensional Vaidya spacetime in detail. We investigated the thermodynamics of field equation in $n$-dimensional Vaidya spacetime. The unified first law was derived in terms of the methods proposed by Sean A Hayward. The first law of dynamical black hole was obtained by projecting the unified first law along the trapping horizon. At last, the second law of dynamical black hole is also discussed.

Abstract:
We consider the black hole dynamical evolution in the framework of a Lorentz-violating spacetime endowed with a Schwarzchild-like momentum-dependent metric. Large deviations from the Hawking-Bekenstein predictions are obtained, depending on the values of the Lorentz-violating parameter lambda introduced. A non-trivial evolution comes out, following mainly from the existence of a non-vanishing minimum mass: for large Lorentz violations, most of the black hole evaporation takes place in the initial stage, which is then followed by a stationary stage (whose duration depends on the value of lambda) where the mass does not change appreciably. Furthermore, for the final stage of evolution, our model predicts a sweet slow death of the black hole, whose "slowness" again depends on lambda, in contrast with the violent final explosion predicted by the standard theory.

Abstract:
In this thesis we study several dynamical processes involving black holes in four and higher dimensions. First, using perturbative techniques, we compare the massless and massive scalar radiation emitted by a particle radially infalling into a Schwarzchild black hole. We show that the late-time waveform of massive scalar perturbations is dominated by a universal oscillatory decaying tail, which appears due to curvature effects. We also show that the energy spectrum is in perfect agreement with a ZFL calculation once no-hair properties of black holes are taken into account. In the second part, we study the phenomenon of superradiance in higher dimensions and conjecture that the maximum energy extracted from a rotating black hole can be understood in terms of the ergoregion proper volume. We then study some consequences of superradiance in the dynamics of moons orbiting around higher-dimensional rotating black holes. In four-dimensional spacetime, moons around black holes generate low-amplitude tides, and the energy extracted from the hole's rotation is always smaller than the gravitational radiation lost to infinity. We show that in dimensions larger than five the energy extracted from the black hole through superradiance is larger than the energy carried out to infinity. Our results lend strong support to the conjecture that tidal acceleration is the rule, rather than the exception, in higher dimensions. Superradiance dominates the energy budget and moons "outspiral"; for some particular orbital frequency, the energy extracted at the horizon equals the energy emitted to infinity and "floating orbits" generically occur. We give an interpretation of this phenomenon in terms of the membrane paradigm and of tidal acceleration due to energy dissipation across the horizon.

Abstract:
We study the dynamical evolution of a scalar field coupling to Einstein's tensor in the background of Reissner-Nordstr\"{o}m black hole. Our results show that the the coupling constant $\eta$ imprints in the wave dynamics of a scalar perturbation. In the weak coupling, we find that with the increase of the coupling constant $\eta$ the real parts of the fundamental quasinormal frequencies decrease and the absolute values of imaginary parts increase for fixed charge $q$ and multipole number $l$. In the strong coupling, we find that for $l\neq0$ the instability occurs when $\eta$ is larger than a certain threshold value $\eta_c$ which deceases with the multipole number $l$ and charge $q$. However, for the lowest $l=0$, we find that there does not exist such a threshold value and the scalar field always decays for arbitrary coupling constant.

Abstract:
We show that there is no superradiance in the rotating BTZ black hole for vanishing boundary conditions at infinity for the real scalar field

Abstract:
A new numerical method is introduced to study the problem of time evolution of generic non-linear dynamical systems in four-dimensional spacetimes. It is assumed that the time level surfaces are foliated by a one-parameter family of codimension two compact surfaces with no boundary and which are conformal to a Riemannian manifold C. The method is based on the use of a multipole expansion determined uniquely by the induced metric structure on C. The approach is fully spectral in the angular directions. The dynamics in the complementary 1+1 Lorentzian spacetime is followed by making use of a fourth order finite differencing scheme with adaptive mesh refinement. In checking the reliability of the introduced new method the evolution of a massless scalar field on a fixed Kerr spacetime is investigated. In particular, the angular distribution of the evolving field in to be superradiant scattering is studied. The primary aim was to check the validity of some of the recent arguments claiming that the Penrose process, or its field theoretical correspondence---superradiance---does play crucial role in jet formation in black hole spacetimes while matter accretes onto the central object. Our findings appear to be on contrary to these claims as the angular dependence of a to be superradiant scattering of a massless scalar field does not show any preference of the axis of rotation. In addition, the process of superradiance, in case of a massless scalar field, was also investigated. On contrary to the general expectations no energy extraction from black hole was found even though the incident wave packets was fine tuned to be maximally superradiant. Instead of energy extraction the to be superradiant part of the incident wave packet fails to reach the ergoregion rather it suffers a total reflection which appears to be a new phenomenon.

Abstract:
Using the Kerr-Schild formalism to solve the Einstein-Maxwell equations, we study energy transport due to time-dependent electromagnetic perturbations around a Kerr black hole, which may work as a mechanism to illuminate a disk located on the equatorial plane. For such a disk-hole system it is found that the energy extraction from the hole can occur under the well-known superradiance condition for wave frequency, even though the energy absorption into the hole should be rather dominant near the polar region of the horizon. We estimate the efficiency of the superradiant amplification of the disk illumination. Further we calculate the time-averaged energy density distribution to show explicitly the existence of a negative energy region near the horizon and to discuss the possible generation of a hot spot on the disk.

Abstract:
It is shown that the superradiance modes always exist in the radiation by the $(4+n)$-dimensional rotating black holes. Using a Bekenstein argument the condition for the superradiance modes is shown to be $0 < \omega < m \Omega$ for the scalar, electromagnetic and gravitational waves when the spacetime background has a single angular momentum parameter about an axis on the brane, where $\Omega$ is a rotational frequency of the black hole and $m$ is an azimuthal quantum number of the radiated wave.

Abstract:
In this paper we invstigate the possibility of the acoustic analogue of a phenomenon like superradiance, that is, the amplification of a sound wave by reflection from the ergo-region of a rotating acoustic black hole in the fluid "draining bathtub" model in the presence of a desclination be amplified or reduced in agreement with the value of the deficit angle.