Abstract:
It is shown that the "twin paradox" arises from comparing unlike entities, namely perceived intervals with eigenintervals. When this lacuna is closed, it is seen that there is no twin paradox and that eigentime can serve as the independent variable for mechanics in Special Relativity.

Abstract:
The argument of twins' asymmetry, essentially put forward in the common solution of the Twin Paradox, is revealed to be inoperative in some asymptotic situations in which the noninertial effects are insignificant. Consequently the respective solution proves itself as unreliable thing and the Twin Paradox is re-established as an open problem which require further investigations.

Abstract:
The accepted resolution of the twin paradox in relativity states that the age of the inertial twin `jumps' when the traveling twin undergoes his turn-around acceleration. This resolution is based on the use of the equivalent gravitational shift in the frame of the accelerating twin. We use the same analysis to propose a symmetric variant of the problem with the twins experiencing identical acceleration and deceleration phases, but which predicts conflicting results for the age of the other twin. We also propose an unambiguous test of the standard resolution based on the Pound-Rebka experiment.

Abstract:
One of the most discussed peculiarities of Einstein's theory of relativity is the twin paradox, the fact that the time between two events in space-time appears to depend on the path between these events. We show that this time discrepancy results only from faulty assumptions in the transition from one reference system to another. The twin paradox does not exist. But the Lorentz invariance of the theory has strong consequences, if we assume that it is valid not only locally, but also on cosmic scale.

Abstract:
The twin paradox is the best known thought experiment associated with Einstein's theory of relativity. An astronaut who makes a journey into space in a high-speed rocket will return home to find he has aged less than a twin who stayed on Earth. This result appears puzzling, since the situation seems symmetrical, as the homebody twin can be considered to have done the travelling with respect to the traveller. Hence it is called a "paradox". In fact, there is no contradiction and the apparent paradox has a simple resolution in Special Relativity with infinite flat space. In General Relativity (dealing with gravitational fields and curved space-time), or in a compact space such as the hypersphere or a multiply connected finite space, the paradox is more complicated, but its resolution provides new insights about the structure of spacetime and the limitations of the equivalence between inertial reference frames.

Abstract:
We consider a new version of the twin paradox. The twins move along the same circular free photon path around the Schwarzschild center. In this case, despite their different velocities, all twins have the same non-zero acceleration. On the circular photon path, the symmetry between the twins situations is broken not by acceleration (as it is in the case of the classic twin paradox), but by the existence of an absolute standard of rest (timelike Killing vector). The twin with the higher velocity with respect to the standard of rest is younger on reunion. This closely resembles the case of periodic motions in compact (non-trivial topology) 3-D space recently considered in the context of the twin paradox by Barrow and Levin, except that there accelerations of all twins were equal to zero, and that in the case considered here, the 3-D space has trivial topology.

Abstract:
The Classical Twin Paradox is widely dealt in literature and neatly resolved. In addition, it is also well known that, when looking at two systems which are boosted relative to each other, the concept of the simultaneous effect of a quantum measurement in space-time causes some discrepancies in the cause-effect behavior. However, these discrepancies have been thought not to cause any apparent paradox except for violating the Free-Will postulate. In this paper we suggest that using the local t axis, all over space, as the axis in which the quantum measurement is thought to be simultaneous, we do reach a kind of true "Twin Paradox". The resolution of this paradox requires the introduction of a global proper time into a covariant quantum theory.

Abstract:
The channel capacity between two users is affected by relativistic effects. Under the presence of a fixed noise at the receiver, there appears an asymmetry between "slowly aging" and "fast aging" observers which can be used to have private communication transmission. We discuss some models for users inside gravitational wells and in the twin paradox scenario.

Abstract:
Twins travelling at constant relative velocity will each see the other's time dilate leading to the apparent paradox that each twin believes the other ages more slowly. In a finite space, the twins can both be on inertial, periodic orbits so that they have the opportunity to compare their ages when their paths cross. As we show, they will agree on their respective ages and avoid the paradox. The resolution relies on the selection of a preferred frame singled out by the topology of the space.

Abstract:
In the standard formulation of the twin paradox an accelerated twin considers himself as at rest and his brother as moving. Hence, when formulating the twin paradox, one uses the general principle of relativity, i.e. that accelerated and rotational motion is relative. The significance of perfect inertial dragging for the validity of the principle of relativity is made clear. Three new results are reviewed in the discussion. A cosmic time effect which cannot be reduced to the gravitational or the kinematical time dilation. Perfect dragging in an exact solution of Einsteins field equations describing flat spacetime inside a shell with Kerr spacetime outside it. An extended model of Minkowski spacetime in order to avoid introducing absolute acceleration and rotation through the asymptotic emptiness of the Kerr spacetime.