Abstract:
Due to Klein tunneling, electrostatic potentials are unable to confine Dirac electrons. We show that it is possible to confine massless Dirac fermions in a monolayer graphene sheet by inhomogeneous magnetic fields. This allows one to design mesoscopic structures in graphene by magnetic barriers, e.g. quantum dots or quantum point contacts.

Abstract:
Graphene grown on Fe(110)by chemical vapor deposition using propylene is investigated by means of angle-resolved photoemission. The presence of massless Dirac fermions is clearly evidenced by the observation of a fully intact Dirac cone. Unlike Ni(111) and Co(0001), the Fe(110) imposes a strongly anisotropic quasi-one-dimensional structure on the graphene. Certain signatures of a superlattice effect appear in the dispersion of its \sigma-bands but the Dirac cone does not reveal any detectable superlattice or quantum-size effects although the graphene corrugation is twice as large as in the established two-dimensional graphene superlattice on Ir(111).

Abstract:
Motivated by recent graphene transport experiments, we have undertaken a numerical study of the conductivity of disordered two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions. Our results reveal distinct differences between the cases of short-range and Coulomb randomly distributed scatterers. We speculate that this behavior is related to the Boltzmann transport theory prediction of dirty-limit behavior for Coulomb scatterers.

Abstract:
We study the relations between massless Dirac fermions in an electromagnetic field and atoms in quantum optics. After getting the solutions of the energy spectrum, we show that it is possible to reproduce the 2D Dirac Hamiltonian, with all its quantum relativistic effects, in a controllable system as a single trapped ion through the Jaynes--Cummings and anti-Jaynes--Cummings models. Also we show that under certain conditions the evolution of the Dirac Hamiltonian provides us with Rashba spin-orbit and linear Dresselhaus couplings. Considering the multimode multiphoton Jaynes-Cummings model interacting with N modes of electromagnetic field prepared in general pure quantum states, we analyze the Rabi oscillation. Evaluating time evolution of the Dirac position operator, we determine the Zitterbewegung frequency and the corresponding oscillating term as function of the electromagnetic field.

Abstract:
By solving two-component spinor equation for massless Dirac Fermions, we show that graphene under a periodic external magnetic field exhibits a unique energy spectrum: At low energies, Dirac Fermions are localized inside the magnetic region with discrete Landau energy levels, while at higher energies, Dirac Fermions are mainly found in non-magnetic regions with continuous energy bands originating from wavefunctions analogous to particle-in-box states of electrons. These findings offer a new methodology for the control and tuning of massless Dirac Fermions in graphene.

Abstract:
We show that new massless Dirac fermions are generated when a slowly varying periodic potential is applied to graphene. These quasiparticles, generated near the supercell Brillouin zone boundaries with anisotropic group velocity, are different from the original massless Dirac fermions. The quasiparticle wavevector (measured from the new Dirac point), the generalized pseudospin vector, and the group velocity are not collinear. We further show that with an appropriate periodic potential of triangular symmetry, there exists an energy window over which the only available states are these quasiparticles, thus, providing a good system to probe experimentally the new massless Dirac fermions. The required parameters of external potentials are within the realm of laboratory conditions.

Abstract:
Coulomb drag between two unhybridized graphene sheets separated by a dielectric spacer has recently attracted considerable theoretical interest. We first review, for the sake of completeness, the main analytical results which have been obtained by other authors. We then illustrate pedagogically the minimal theory of Coulomb drag between two spatially-separated two-dimensional systems of massless Dirac fermions which are both away from the charge-neutrality point. This relies on second-order perturbation theory in the screened interlayer interaction and on Boltzmann transport theory. In this theoretical framework and in the low-temperature limit, we demonstrate that, to leading (i.e. quadratic) order in temperature, the drag transresistivity is completely insensitive to the precise intralayer momentum-relaxation mechanism (i.e. to the functional dependence of the scattering time on energy). We also provide analytical results for the low-temperature drag transresistivity for both cases of "thick" and "thin" spacers and for arbitrary values of the dielectric constants of the media surrounding the two Dirac-fermion layers. Finally, we present numerical results for the low-temperature drag transresistivity in the case in which one of the media surrounding the Dirac-fermion layers has a frequency-dependent dielectric constant. We conclude by suggesting an experiment that can potentially allow for the observation of departures from the canonical Fermi-liquid quadratic-in-temperature behavior of the transresistivity.

Abstract:
We propose a novel scheme to simulate and observe massless Dirac fermions with cold atoms in a square optical lattice. A U(1) adiabatic phase is created by two laser beams for the tunneling of atoms between neighbor lattice sites. Properly adjusting the tunneling phase, we find that the energy spectrum has conical points in per Brillouin zone where band crossing occurs. Near these crossing points the quasiparticles and quasiholes can be considered as massless Dirac fermions. Furthermore, the anisotropic effects of massless Dirac fermions are obtained in the present square lattice model. The Dirac fermions as well as the anisotropic behaviors realizeded in our system can be experimentally detected with the Bragg spectroscopy technique.

Abstract:
There are two types of intrinsic surface states in solids. The first type is formed on the surface of topological insulators. Recently, transport of massless Dirac fermions in the band of "topological" states has been demonstrated. States of the second type were predicted by Tamm and Shockley long ago. They do not have a topological background and are therefore strongly dependent on the properties of the surface. We study the problem of the conductivity of Tamm-Shockley edge states through direct transport experiments. Aharonov-Bohm magneto-oscillations of resistance are found on graphene samples that contain a single nanohole. The effect is explained by the conductivity of the massless Dirac fermions in the edge states cycling around the nanohole. The results demonstrate the deep connection between topological and non-topological edge states in 2D systems of massless Dirac fermions.

Abstract:
We study 2+1 dimensional massless Dirac fermions and bosons coupled to a U(1) gauge field as a model for underdoped cuprates. We find that the uniform susceptibility and the specific heat coefficient are logarithmically enhanced (compared to linear-in-T behavior) due to the fluctuation of transverse gauge field which is the only massless mode at finite boson density. We analyze existing data, and find good agreement in the spin gap phase. Within our picture, the drop of the susceptibility below the superconducting T_c arises from the suppression of gauge fluctuations.