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Analytic solution of a model of language competition with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity  [PDF]
Victoria Otero-Espinar,Luís F. Seoane,Juan J. Nieto,Jorge Mira
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.physd.2013.08.011
Abstract: An in-depth analytic study of a model of language dynamics is presented: a model which tackles the problem of the coexistence of two languages within a closed community of speakers taking into account bilingualism and incorporating a parameter to measure the distance between languages. After previous numerical simulations, the model yielded that coexistence might lead to survival of both languages within monolingual speakers along with a bilingual community or to extinction of the weakest tongue depending on different parameters. In this paper, such study is closed with thorough analytical calculations to settle the results in a robust way and previous results are refined with some modifications. From the present analysis it is possible to almost completely assay the number and nature of the equilibrium points of the model, which depend on its parameters, as well as to build a phase space based on them. Also, we obtain conclusions on the way the languages evolve with time. Our rigorous considerations also suggest ways to further improve the model and facilitate the comparison of its consequences with those from other approaches or with real data.
The Impact of Market Maker Competition on Market Quality: Evidence from an Options Exchange
Angelo Aspris,Alex Frino,Andrew Lepone
Australasian Accounting Business and Finance Journal , 2012,
Abstract: This paper examines the dynamic relationship between competition, liquidity provision, and market structure. By examining the entry and exit of market makers in the Australian Options market, this study empirically analyses the issue of market maker competition. Results indicate that market maker entry depends on a broad range of profit, risk and market concentration characteristics, but free market maker movement does not explicitly result in a competitive market structure. This study also finds that the degree of market concentration additionally affects the marginal impact of market maker entry (exit), but the effect is significantly more pronounced for the most liquid classes of options. The implication of this finding is pertinent to market regulators since market maker competition may not necessarily contribute to enhancing market quality for less liquid securities.
Impact of ordering competition on the global phase diagram of iron pnictides  [PDF]
Jing Wang,Guo-Zhu Liu
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.184510
Abstract: We consider the impact of the competition among superconductivity, spin density wave, and nematic order in iron pnictides, and show that the ordering competition substantially reshapes the global phase diagram. We perform a detailed renormalization group analysis of an effective field theory of iron pnictides and derive the flow equations of all the physical parameters. Using these results, we find that superconductivity can be strongly suppressed by the ordering competition, and also extract the $T$-dependence of superfluid density. Moreover, the phase transitions may become first order. Interestingly, our RG analysis reveal that the nematic order exists only in an intermediate temperature region $T_{m}< T < T_{n}$, but is destroyed at $T > T_{n}$ by thermal fluctuation and at $T < T_{m}$ by ordering competition. This anomalous existence of nematic order leads to a back-bending of the nematic transition line on the phase diagram, consistent with the observed reentrance of tetragonal structure at low temperatures. A modified phase diagram is obtained based on the RG results.
Competition of Dimerization and Charge Ordering in the Spin-Peierls State of Organic Conductors  [PDF]
Muneo Sugiura,Yoshikazu Suzumura
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.72.1458
Abstract: The effect of the charge ordering on the spin-Peierls (SP) state has been examined by using a Peierls-Hubbard model at quarter-filling with dimerization, on-site and nearest-neighbor repulsive interactions. By taking account of the presence of dimerization, a bond distortion is calculated variationally with the renormalization group method based on bosonization. When the charge ordering appears at V=V_c with increasing the nearest-neighbor interaction (V), the distortion exhibits a maximum due to competition between the dimerization and the charge ordering. It is shown that the second-order phase transition occurs from the SP state with the bond alternation to a mixed state with an additional component of the site alternationat V = V_c.
Competition between commensurate and incommensurate magnetic ordering in Fe(1+y)Te  [PDF]
D. Parshall,G. Chen,L. Pintschovius,D. Lamago,Th. Wolf,L. Radzihovsky,D. Reznik
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.140515
Abstract: The Fe1+y Te1-x Sex compounds belong to the family of iron-based high temperature superconductors, in which superconductivity often appears upon doping antiferromagnetic parent compounds. Unlike other Fe-based superconductors (in which the antiferromagnetic order is at the Fermi surface nesting wavevector [1/2,1/2,1]), the Fe1+y Te1-x Sex parent compound Fe1+y Te orders at a different wavevector, [1/2, 0, 1/2]. Furthermore, the ordering wavevector depends on y, the occupation of interstitial sites with excess iron; the origin of this behavior is controversial. Using inelastic neutron scattering on Fe1.08 Te, we find incommensurate magnetic fluctuations above the Neel temperature, even though the ordered state is bicollinear and commensurate with gapped spin waves. This behavior can be understood in terms of a competition between commensurate and incommensurate order, which we explain as a lock-in transition caused by the magnetic anisotropy.
Contribution of Bilingualism in Language Teaching  [cached]
Muhammad Aslam Sipra
English Language Teaching , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v6n1p56
Abstract: This study is an investigation into the contribution of the use of bilingualism as an aid in learning/teaching English as a foreign language and bilingualism in EFL classroom does not reduce students’ communicative abilities but in effect can assist in teaching and learning process. The study employed a qualitative, interpretive research design involving questionnaires, classroom observations and semi-structured interviews. The data part analyzed the students and the teachers’ expressed responses and beliefs about the role of bilingualism in EFL classes. The findings of the study in general are that bilingualism as a resource in teaching facilitates in learning L2 and helps make more people acknowledge the contribution of bilingualism in EFL classes.
Anomalous lifetime distributions and topological traps in ordering dynamics  [PDF]
X. Castello,R. Toivonen,V. M. Eguiluz,J. Saramaki,K. Kaski,M. San Miguel
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/79/66006
Abstract: We address the role of community structure of an interaction network in ordering dynamics, as well as associated forms of metastability. We consider the voter and AB model dynamics in a network model which mimics social interactions. The AB model includes an intermediate state between the two excluding options of the voter model. For the voter model we find dynamical metastable disordered states with a characteristic mean lifetime. However, for the AB dynamics we find a power law distribution of the lifetime of metastable states, so that the mean lifetime is not representative of the dynamics. These trapped metastable states, which can order at all time scales, originate in the mesoscopic network structure.
BILINGUALISM AND DIGLOSSIA IN THE CAPITAL OF UKRAINE
Natalia Matveieva
Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern , 2018, DOI: 10.18523/lcmp2522-92812018156161
Abstract: Background. Much research has been devoted to the problem of language situation. But in this study, we have focused on the capital and analyzed its situation in the terms of bilingualism and diglossia. The article “Bilingualism and diglossia in the capital of Ukraine” deals with the problem of functioning of the Ukrainian and Russian language in formal and informal communication of Kyiv inhabitants. Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the phenomena of bilingualism and diglossia in the capital of Ukraine on the basis of several sociological surveys. Methods. The research was conducted through analyzing the results of different sociolinguistic investigations: 2000, 2007, and 2013. Wae have also studied the data of the annual research of the organization “Prostir svobody” and experiments of the “1 1” channel. Results. The problem of Ukrainian-Russian bilingualism and diglossia in Ukraine is difficult and contradictory. Because of the fact that in one country two languages exist together, language and cultural unity of people is broken. This situation can be observed in Kyiv, because bilingualism and diglossia are widespread phenomena here. For that matter, the Ukrainian and Russian language in Kyiv are differentiated depending on formal or informal communication, that is the main feature of diglossia. Different studies have shown that Ukrainian as the official language is limited to use only in formal spheres, whereas Russian often dominates in everyday life. Discussion. So we can conclude that the amount of the Ukrainian language is increasing nowadays, but it still remains less popular in the spheres of nonofficial communication.
Competition between local disordering and global ordering fields in nematic liquid crystals  [cached]
Matej Cvetko,Milan Ambro?i?,Samo Kralj
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.3762/bjoc.6.2
Abstract: We study the influence of external electric or magnetic field B on orientational ordering of nematic liquid crystals or of other rod-like objects (e.g. nanotubes immersed in a liquid) in the presence of random anisotropy field type of disorder. The Lebwohl–Lasher lattice type of semi-microscopic approach is used at zero temperature. Therefore, results are valid well below the transition into the isotropic phase. We calculate the correlation function of systems as a function of B, concentration p of impurities imposing random anisotropy field disorder, the disorder strength W and system dimensionality (2D and 3D systems). In order to probe memory effects we calculate correlation length ξ for random and homogeneous initial configurations. We determine the crossover fields Bc(p) separating roughly the ordered and disordered regime. Memory effects are apparent only in the latter case, i.e. for B < Bc.PACS numbers: 47.51.+a, 47.54.-r, 07.05.Tp, 61.30.-v
Charge Ordering and Phase Competition in the Layered Perovskite Lasr2mn2o7  [PDF]
D. N Argyriou,H. N. Bordallo1,B. J. Campbell,A. K. Cheetham,D. E. Cox,J. S. Gardner,K. Hanif,A. dos Santos,G. F. Strouse
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.61.15269
Abstract: Charge-lattice fluctuations are observed in the layered perovskite manganite LaSr2Mn2O7 by Raman spectroscopy as high as 340 K and with decreasing temperature they become static and form a charge ordered (CO) phase below TCO=210 K. In the static regime, superlattice reflections are observed through neutron and x-ray diffraction with a propagation vector (h+1/4,k-1/4,l). Crystallographic analysis of the CO state demonstrates that the degree of charge and orbital ordering in this manganite is weaker than the charge ordering in three dimensional perovskite manganites. A TN=170K a type-A antiferromagnetism (AF) develops and competes with the charge ordering, that eventually melts below T*=100K. High resolution diffraction measurements suggest that that CO- and AF-states do not coincide within the same region in the material but rather co-exist as separate phases. The transition to type-A antiferromagnetism at lower temperatures is characterized by the competition between these two phases.
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