Abstract:
Graphene grown on Fe(110)by chemical vapor deposition using propylene is investigated by means of angle-resolved photoemission. The presence of massless Dirac fermions is clearly evidenced by the observation of a fully intact Dirac cone. Unlike Ni(111) and Co(0001), the Fe(110) imposes a strongly anisotropic quasi-one-dimensional structure on the graphene. Certain signatures of a superlattice effect appear in the dispersion of its \sigma-bands but the Dirac cone does not reveal any detectable superlattice or quantum-size effects although the graphene corrugation is twice as large as in the established two-dimensional graphene superlattice on Ir(111).

Abstract:
Motivated by recent graphene transport experiments, we have undertaken a numerical study of the conductivity of disordered two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions. Our results reveal distinct differences between the cases of short-range and Coulomb randomly distributed scatterers. We speculate that this behavior is related to the Boltzmann transport theory prediction of dirty-limit behavior for Coulomb scatterers.

Abstract:
By solving two-component spinor equation for massless Dirac Fermions, we show that graphene under a periodic external magnetic field exhibits a unique energy spectrum: At low energies, Dirac Fermions are localized inside the magnetic region with discrete Landau energy levels, while at higher energies, Dirac Fermions are mainly found in non-magnetic regions with continuous energy bands originating from wavefunctions analogous to particle-in-box states of electrons. These findings offer a new methodology for the control and tuning of massless Dirac Fermions in graphene.

Abstract:
We show that new massless Dirac fermions are generated when a slowly varying periodic potential is applied to graphene. These quasiparticles, generated near the supercell Brillouin zone boundaries with anisotropic group velocity, are different from the original massless Dirac fermions. The quasiparticle wavevector (measured from the new Dirac point), the generalized pseudospin vector, and the group velocity are not collinear. We further show that with an appropriate periodic potential of triangular symmetry, there exists an energy window over which the only available states are these quasiparticles, thus, providing a good system to probe experimentally the new massless Dirac fermions. The required parameters of external potentials are within the realm of laboratory conditions.

Abstract:
Since the discovery of topological insulators (TIs)1,2, the peculiar nature of their chiral surface states has been experimentally demonstrated both in bulk and in film materials with open boundaries3,4. Closed boundary on a TI surface may intrigue more interesting phenomena such as quantum confinement of massless Dirac fermions (DFs), which is analogous to the quantum corral (QC) for massive free electrons on a metal surface5-10. To date, it keeps a highly stringent challenge to realize a true Dirac QC due to the unusual transmitting power of a massless fermion. Through heteroepitaxially growing a Bi bilayer on the Bi2Te3 surface with appropriate coverage, here we demonstrate the realization of a true Dirac QC. Specifically, spectacular maps of quantum interference in equilateral triangle-shaped QCs surrounded by Bi bilayers are directly visualized by using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The present success is ascribed to a perfect orientation matching between the QC boundary and the stationary-phase scattering of massless DFs. In addition, the quasiparticle lifetime of the confined DFs is also systematically measured and analyzed.

Abstract:
Using the Lewis-Riesenfeld method of invariants we construct explicit analytical solutions for the massless Dirac equation in 2+1 dimensions describing quasi-particles in graphene. The Hamiltonian of the system considered contains some explicit time-dependence in addition to one resulting from being minimally coupled to a time-dependent magnetic field. The eigenvalue equations for the two spinor components of the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant are found to decouple into a pair of supersymmetric invariants in a similar fashion as the known decoupling for the time-independent Dirac Hamiltonians.

Abstract:
Electronic properties of materials are commonly described by quasiparticles that behave as non-relativistic electrons with a finite mass and obey the Schroedinger equation. Here we report a condensed matter system where electron transport is essentially governed by the Dirac equation and charge carriers mimic relativistic particles with zero mass and an effective "speed of light" c* ~10^6m/s. Our studies of graphene - a single atomic layer of carbon - have revealed a variety of unusual phenomena characteristic of two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermions. In particular, we have observed that a) the integer quantum Hall effect in graphene is anomalous in that it occurs at half-integer filling factors; b) graphene's conductivity never falls below a minimum value corresponding to the conductance quantum e^2/h, even when carrier concentrations tend to zero; c) the cyclotron mass m of massless carriers with energy E in graphene is described by equation E =mc*^2; and d) Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in graphene exhibit a phase shift of pi due to Berry's phase.

Abstract:
Charge carriers of graphene show neutrino-like linear energy dispersions as well as chiral behavior near the Dirac point. Here we report highly unusual and unexpected behaviors of these carriers in applied external periodic potentials, i.e., in graphene superlattices. The group velocity renormalizes highly anisotropically even to a degree that it is not changed at all for states with wavevector in one direction but is reduced to zero in another, implying the possibility that one can make nanoscale electronic circuits out of graphene not by cutting it but by drawing on it in a non-destructive way. Also, the type of charge carrier species (e.g. electron, hole or open orbit) and their density of states vary drastically with the Fermi energy, enabling one to tune the Fermi surface-dominant properties significantly with gate voltage. These results address the fundamental question of how chiral massless Dirac fermions propagate in periodic potentials and point to a new possible path for nanoscale electronics.

Abstract:
We establish an analogy between spectra of Dirac fermions in laser fields and an electron spectrum of graphene superlattices formed by static 1D periodic potentials. The general relations between a laser-controlled spectrum where electron momentum depends on the quasi-energy and a superlattice mini-band spectrum in graphene are derived. As an example we consider two spectra generated by a pulsed laser and by a step-like electrostatic potential. We also calculate the graphene excitation spectrum in continuous strong laser fields in the resonance approximation for linear and circular polarizations and show that circular polarized laser fields cannot be reduced to any graphene electrostatic superlattice. Some physical phenomena related to the peculiar graphene energy spectrum in the strong electromagnetic field are discussed.

Abstract:
We present extensive numerical results for the thermodynamic density of states (i.e. quantum capacitance) of a two-dimensional massless Dirac fermion fluid in a doped graphene sheet. In particular, by employing the random phase approximation, we quantify the impact of screening exerted by a metal gate located nearby a graphene flake. Finally, we calculate the spin- and circularly-symmetric Landau parameter, which can be experimentally extracted from independent measurements on the same setup of the quantum capacitance and quasiparticle velocity.