Abstract:
We explore the metastability effects across the order-disorder transition pertaining to the peak effect phenomenonon in critical current density ($J_c$) via the first and the third harmonic ac susceptibility measurements in the weakly pinned single crystals of $2H$-$NbSe_2$. An analysis of our data suggests that an imprint of the limiting (spinodal) temperature above which $J_c$ is path independent can be conveniently located in the third harmonic data ($\chi_{3\omega}^{\prime}$).

Abstract:
Magnetoresistance (MR) of the Bi$_{2-x}$Pb$_x$Sr$_2$Co$_2$O$_y$ ($x$=0, 0.3, 0.4) single crystals is investigated systematically. A nonmonotonic variation of the isothermal in-plane and out-of-plane MR with the field is observed. The out-of-plane MR is positive in high temperatures and increases with decreasing $T$, and exhibits a pronounced hump, and changes the sign from positive to negative at a centain temperature. These results strongly suggest that the observed MR consists of two contributions: one \emph{negative} and one \emph{positive} component. The isothermal MR in high magnetic fields follows a $H^2$ law. While the negative contribution comes from spin scattering of carriers by localized-magnetic-moments based on the Khosla-Fischer model.

Abstract:
The existence of a peak effect in transport properties (a maximum of the critical current as function of magnetic field) is a well-known but still intriguing feature of type II superconductors such as NbSe2 and Bi-2212. Using a model of pinning by surface irregularities in anisotropic superconductors, we have developed a calculation of the critical current which allows estimating quantitatively the critical current in both the high critical current phase and in the low critical current phase. The only adjustable parameter of this model is the angle of the vortices at the surface. The agreement between the measurements and the model is really very impressive. In this framework, the anomalous dynamical properties close to the peak effect is due to co-existence of two different vortex states with different critical currents. Recent neutron diffraction data in NbSe2 crystals in presence of transport current support this point of view.

Abstract:
Magnetoresistance (MR) in the a-axis resistivity of untwinned YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{y} single crystals is measured for a wide range of doping (y = 6.45 - 7.0). The y-dependence of the in-plane coherence length \xi_{ab} estimated from the fluctuation magnetoconductance indicates that the superconductivity is anomalously weakened in the 60-K phase; this gives evidence, together with the Hall coefficient and the a-axis thermopower data that suggest the hole doping to be 12% for y = 6.65, that the origin of the 60-K plateau is the 1/8 anomaly. At high temperatures, the normal-state MR data show signatures of the Zeeman effect on the pseudogap in underdoped samples.

Abstract:
We investigate charge transport in two-dimensional ferromagnet/feromagnet junction on a topological insulator. The conductance across the interface depends sensitively on the directions of the magnetizations of the two ferromagnets, showing anomalous behaviors compared with the conventional spin-valve. It is found that the conductance depends strongly on the in-plane direction of the magnetization. Moreover, in sharp contrast to the conventional magnetoresistance effect, in the p-n junction, the conductance at the parallel configuration is much smaller than that at the antiparallel configuration. This stems from the way how the wavefunctions connect between both sides.

Abstract:
The present paper theoretically investigates magnetoresistance curves in quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers for two different growth directions, namely [110] and [100]. We considered identical ferromagnetic layers separated by non-magnetic layers with two different thicknesses chosen based on the Fibonacci sequence. Using parameters for Fe/Cr multilayers, four terms were included in our description of the magnetic energy: Zeeman, cubic anisotropy, bilinear and biquadratic couplings. The minimum energy was determined by the gradient method and the equilibrium magnetization directions found were used to calculate magnetoresistance curves. By choosing spacers with a thickness such that biquadratic coupling is stronger than bilinear coupling, unusual behaviors for the magnetoresistance were observed: (i) for the [110] case there is a different behavior for structures based on even and odd Fibonacci generations; and more interesting, (ii) for the [100] case we found magnetic field ranges for which the magnetoresistance increases with magnetic field.

Abstract:
The periodic response of magnetoresistance to an externally tunable parameter, such as magnetic field or chemical composition, in the bulk or an artificially designed material has been exploited for technological applications as well as to advance our understanding of many novel effects of solid state physics. Some notable examples are the giant magnetoresistance effect in layered materials, the quantum hall effect in semiconductor heterostructure and the phase coherence of electronic wave function in disordered metals. In recent years, the ability to engineer materials at the nanoscale has played a key role in exploring new phenomenon. Using a system involving periodic Co dots array in direct contact with a surrounding polycrystalline Cu film, we report the observation of giant thermal hysteresis and an anomalous oscillatory magnetoresistance behavior. The unusual aspects of oscillatory magnetoresistance include its observation along only one field scan direction in an intermediate temperature range of 100 K < T < 200 K. Reducing the thickness of the Cu film weakens the magnetoresistance oscillation. These properties suggest a new phenomenon, which could be harnessed for future technological applications.

Abstract:
We present a mode locking (ML) phenomenon of vortex matter observed around the peak effect regime of 2H-NbSe$_2$ pure single crystals. The ML features allow us not only to trace how the shear rigidity of driven vortices persists on approaching the second critical field, but also to demonstrate a dynamic melting transition of driven vortices at a given velocity. We observe the velocity dependent melting signatures in the peak effect regime, which reveal a crossover between the disorder-induced transition at small velocity and the thermally induced transition at large velocity. This uncovers the relationship between the peak effect and the thermal melting.

Abstract:
Electric and magnetic characterization of NbSe2 single crystals is first presented in detail. Then, some preliminary measurements of the fluctuation-diamagnetism (FD) above the transition temperature Tc are presented. The moderate uniaxial anisotropy of this compound allowed us to observe the fluctuation effects for magnetic fields H applied in the two main crystallographic orientations. The superconducting parameters resulting from the characterization suggest that it is possible to do a reliable analysis of the FD in terms of the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory.

Abstract:
We report on measurements and a detailed analysis of the reversible magnetization of superconducting NbSe2 single crystals. By comparing the experimental data with Ginzburg Landau theory we show that superconductivity in NbSe2 cannot be explained by an anisotropic single-band, but by a multi-band scenario. Applying a simple two-band model reveals the basic mixed-state parameters, which are quite different in the two bands. We identify a strongly anisotropic band that determines the properties at high magnetic fields, and a second almost isotropic band that dominates at low fields. Our method is well suited for distinguishing anisotropic single-band from multi-band superconductivity in various materials.