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 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.241120 Abstract: A Kondo semiconductor CeRu$_2$Al$_{10}$ with an orthorhombic crystal structure shows an unusual antiferromagnetic ordering at rather high temperature $T_0$ of 27.3 K, which is lower than the Kondo temperature $T_{\rm K}\sim$ 60 K. In optical conductivity [$\sigma(\omega)$] spectra that directly reflect electronic structure, the $c$-$f$ hybridization gap between the conduction and $4f$ states is observed at around 40 meV along the three principal axes. However, an additional peak at around 20 meV appears only along the $b$ axis. With increasing $x$ to 0.05 in Ce(Ru$_{1-x}$Rh$_x$)$_2$Al$_{10}$, the $T_0$ decreases slightly from 27.3 K to 24 K, but the direction of the magnetic moment changes from the $c$ axis to the $a$ axis. Thereby, the $c$-$f$ hybridization gap in the $\sigma(\omega)$ spectra is strongly suppressed, but the intensity of the 20-meV peak remains as strong as for $x=0$. These results suggest that the change of the magnetic moment direction originates from the decreasing of the $c$-$f$ hybridization intensity. The magnetic ordering temperature $T_0$ is not directly related to the $c$-$f$ hybridization but is related to the charge excitation at 20 meV observed along the $b$ axis.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.115206 Abstract: Magnetic ground state of Rh-doped Kondo semiconductor CeRu$_2$Al$_{10}$ [Ce(Ru$_{1-x}$Rh$_x$)$_2$Al$_{10}$] is investigated by muon-spin relaxation method. Muon-spin precession with two frequencies is observed in the $x$ = 0 sample, while only one frequency is present in the $x$ = 0.05 and 0.1 samples, which is attributed to the broad static field distribution at the muon site. The internal field at the muon site is enhanced from about 180 G in $x$ = 0 sample to about 800 G in the Rh-doped samples, supporting the spin-flop transition as suggested by macroscopic measurements, and the boundary of different magnetic ground states is identified around $x$ = 0.03. The drastic change of magnetic ground state by a small amount of Rh-doping (3%) indicates that the magnetic structure in CeRu$_2$Al$_{10}$ is not robust and can be easily tuned by external perturbations such as electron doping. The anomalous temperature dependence of internal field in CeRu$_2$Al$_{10}$ is suggested to be attributed to the hyperfine interaction between muons and conduction electrons.
 Physics , 2010, Abstract: We studied the transport properties of CeRu_2Al_10 single crystals. All the transport properties show largely anisotropic behaviors below T_0. Those along the a- and c-axes show similar behaviors, but are different from those along the b-axis. This suggests that the system could be viewed as a two-dimensional system. The results of the thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power could be explained by assuming the singlet ground state below T_0. However, the ground state is not simple but has some kind of structure within a spin gap.
 Physics , 2010, Abstract: The magnetization measurements of CexLa1-xRu2Al10 (x = 1, 0.75) under the high magnetic field were performed in order to obtain the information for the long-range order (LRO) in CeRu2Al10. We successfully obtained the magnetic phase diagram of these two compounds for the applied magnetic field along the a-axis which is the magnetization easy axis, and found that the LRO for x = 1 disappears at ~50 T which is the critical field to the paramagnetic phase. For x = 0.75, the critical magnetic field decreases to ~37 T by La substitution. The magnetic phase diagram and magnetization curve are qualitatively consistent with the recent Hanzawa's mean field calculation results obtained by assuming the dimer of Ce ions whose crystalline electric field ground state has a large magnetic anisotropy. These results support the singlet pair formation scenario recently proposed by Tanida et al.. We also pointed out the possibility of the appearance of the field-induced magnetic phase between ~40 T and ~50 T for x = 1.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.165125 Abstract: The anisotropic electronic structure responsible for the antiferromagnetic transition in CeRu$_2$Al$_{10}$ at the unusually high temperature of $T_0$ = 28 K was studied using optical conductivity spectra, Ce 3d X-ray photoemission spectra, and band calculation. It was found that the electronic structure in the $ac$ plane is that of a Kondo semiconductor, whereas that along the b axis has a nesting below 32 K (slightly higher than $T_0$). These characteristics are the same as those of CeOs$_2$Al$_{10}$ [S. Kimura {\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 056404 (2011).]. The $c$-$f$ hybridization intensities between the conduction and $4f$ electrons of CeRu$_2$Al$_{10}$ and CeOs$_2$Al$_{10}$ are weaker than that of CeFe$_2$Al$_{10}$, showing no magnetic ordering. These results suggest that the electronic structure with one-dimensional weak $c$-$f$ hybridization along the b axis combined with two-dimensional strong hybridization in the $ac$ plane causes charge-density wave (CDW) instability, and the CDW state then induces magnetic ordering.
 Katsurou Hanzawa Physics , 2010, Abstract: We propose a relevant lattice distortion to stabilize the spin-Peierls state in CeRu2Al10, compatible with the 27Al-NQR spectra and the neutron diffraction patterns on the assumption that Al atoms at Al(1) to Al(4) sites displace toward their respective neighboring Ce ions below T0 = 27 K, leaving Ce, Ru, and Al at Al(5) immobile. Due to a resulting regular lattice distortion the assembly of one-dimensional spin-Peierls order on each zigzag chain along the c-axis predicted by the author becomes a three-dimensional order with Q = (0, 0, 1), where bonds connecting dimerized pair of Ce ions form an antiferro ordering in a body-centered structure.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.081105 Abstract: We have succeeded in establishing the crystal-field ground state of CeRu2Al10, an orthorhombic intermetallic compound recently identified as a Kondo insulator. Using polarization dependent soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Ce M4,5 edges, together with input from inelastic neutron and magnetic susceptibility experiments, we were able to determine unambiguously the orbital occupation of the 4f shell and to explain quantitatively both the measured magnetic moment along the easy a axis and the small ordered moment along the c-axis. The results provide not only a platform for a realistic modeling of the spin and charge gap of CeRu2Al10, but demonstrate also the potential of soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to obtain information not easily accessible by neutron techniques for the study of Kondo insulators in general.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.79.043708 Abstract: We investigate the thermal and transport properties of CexLa1-xRu2Al10 to clarify the origin of the recently discovered mysterious phase below T0=27 K in CeRu2Al10 where a large magnetic entropy is released, however, the existence of an internal magnetic field is ruled out by 27Al-NQR measurement. We find that T0 decreases with decreasing x and disappears at x~0.45. T0 of CeRu2Al10 is suppressed down to 26 K under H=14.5 T along the a-axis. These results clearly indicate that the transition has a magnetic origin and is ascribed to the interaction between Ce ions. Considering the results of specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, thermal expansion, and electrical resistivity and also 27Al NQR, we propose that the transition originates from the singlet pair formation between Ce ions. Although its properties in a Ce dilute region is basically understood by the impurity Kondo effect, CeRu2Al10 shows a Kondo-semiconductor-like behavior. The phase transition at T0 may be characterized as a new type of phase transition that appears during the crossover from the dilute Kondo to the Kondo semiconductor.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.7566/JPSJ.83.094717 Abstract: We have performed a photoemission spectroscopy (PES) study of CeM2Al10 (M = Fe, Ru, and Os) to directly observe the electronic structure involved in the unusual magnetic ordering. Soft X-ray resonant (SXR) PES provides spectroscopic evidence of the hybridization between conduction and Ce 4f electrons (c-f hybridization) and the order of the hybridization strength (Ru < Os < Fe). High-resolution (HR) PES of CeRu2Al10 and CeOs2Al10, as compared with that of CeFe2Al10, identifies two structures that can be ascribed to structures induced by the c-f hybridization and the antiferromagnetic ordering, respectively. Although the c-f hybridization-induced structure is a depletion of the spectral intensity (pseudogap) around the Fermi level (EF) with an energy scale of 20-30 meV, the structure related to the antiferromagnetic ordering is observed as a shoulder at approximately 10-11 meV within the pseudogap. The energies of the shoulder structures of CeRu2Al10 and CeOs2Al10 are approximately half of the optical gap (20 meV), indicating that EF is located at the midpoint of the gap.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.100404 Abstract: The nature of the unconventional ordered phase occurring in CeRu2Al10 below T0 = 27 K was investigated by neutron scattering. Powder diffraction patterns show clear superstructure peaks corresponding to forbidden (h + k)-odd reflections of the Cmcm space group. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments further reveal a pronounced magnetic excitation developing in the ordered phase at an energy of 8 meV.
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