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 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1014849108 Abstract: Recently a metallic state was discovered at the interface between insulating oxides, most notably LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. Properties of this two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) have attracted significant interest due to its potential applications in nanoelectronics. Control over this carrier density and mobility of the 2DEG is essential for applications of these novel systems, and may be achieved by epitaxial strain. However, despite the rich nature of strain effects on oxide materials properties, such as ferroelectricity, magnetism, and superconductivity, the relationship between the strain and electrical properties of the 2DEG at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface remains largely unexplored. Here, we use different lattice constant single crystal substrates to produce LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces with controlled levels of biaxial epitaxial strain. We have found that tensile strained SrTiO3 destroys the conducting 2DEG, while compressively strained SrTiO3 retains the 2DEG, but with a carrier concentration reduced in comparison to the unstrained LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. We have also found that the critical LaAlO3 overlayer thickness for 2DEG formation increases with SrTiO3 compressive strain. Our first-principles calculations suggest that a strain-induced electric polarization in the SrTiO3 layer is responsible for this behavior. It is directed away from the interface and hence creates a negative polarization charge opposing that of the polar LaAlO3 layer. This both increases the critical thickness of the LaAlO3 layer, and reduces carrier concentration above the critical thickness, in agreement with our experimental results. Our findings suggest that epitaxial strain can be used to tailor 2DEGs properties of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.125404 Abstract: First principles calculations reveal that adding a metallic overlayer on LaAlO3/SrTiO3(001) eliminates the electric field within the polar LaAlO3 film and thus suppresses the thickness-dependent insulator-to-metal transition observed in uncovered films. Independent of the LaAlO3 thickness both the surface and the interface are metallic, with an enhanced interface carrier density relative to LaAlO3/SrTiO3(001) after the metallization transition. Moreover, a monolayer thick metallic Ti-contact exhibits a finite magnetic moment and for a thin SrTiO3-substrate induces a spin-polarized 2D electron gas at the n-type interface due to confinement effects. A diagram of band alignment in M/LaAlO3/SrTiO3(001) and Schottky barriers for M=Ti, Al, and Pt are provided.
 Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.226403 Abstract: We report a comprehensive THz, infrared and optical study of Nb doped SrTiO3 as well as DC conductivity and Hall effect measurements. Our THz spectra at 7K show the presence of a very narrow (<2 meV) Drude peak, the spectral weight of which shows approximately a factor of three enhancement of the band mass for all carrier concentrations. The missing spectral weight is regained in a broad 'mid-infrared' band which originates from electron-phonon coupling. We find no evidence of a particularly large electron-phonon coupling that would result in small polaron formation. Analysis of the results yields an electron-phonon coupling parameter of an intermediate strength, $\alpha \approx 4$.
 Physics , 2015, Abstract: The superconductor at the LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interface provides a model system for the study of two-dimensional superconductivity in the dilute carrier density limit. Here we experimentally address the pairing mechanism in this superconductor. We extract the electron-phonon spectral function from tunneling spectra and conclude, without ruling out contributions of further pairing channels, that electron-phonon mediated pairing is strong enough to account for the superconducting critical temperatures. Furthermore, we discuss the electron-phonon coupling in relation to the superconducting phase diagram. The electron-phonon spectral function is independent of the carrier density, except for a small part of the phase diagram in the underdoped region. The tunneling measurements reveal that the increase of the chemical potential with increasing carrier density levels off and is zero in the overdoped region of the phase diagram. This indicates that the additionally induced carriers do not populate the band that hosts the superconducting state and that the superconducting order parameter therefore is weakened by the presence of charge carriers in another band.
 Physics , 2015, Abstract: Interface-enhanced high-temperature superconductivity in one unit-cell (UC) FeSe films on SrTiO3(001) (STO) substrate has recently attracted much attention in condensed matter physics and material science. By combined in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and ex-situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) studies, we report on atomically resolved structure including both lattice constants and actual atomic positions of the FeSe/STO interface under both non-superconducting and superconducting states. We observed TiO2 double layers (DLs) and significant atomic displacements in the top two layers of STO, lattice compression of the Se-Fe-Se triple layer, and relative shift between bottom Se and topmost Ti atoms. By imaging the interface structures under various superconducting states, we unveil a close correlation between interface structure and superconductivity. Our atomic-scale identification of FeSe/STO interface structure provides useful information on investigating the pairing mechanism of this interface-enhanced high-temperature superconducting system.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/nphys2842 Abstract: The coupling between electrons and phonons is at the heart of many fundamental phenomena in physics. In nature, this coupling is generally predetermined for both, molecules and solids. Tremendous advances have been made in controlling electrons and phonons in engineered nanosystems, yet, control over the coupling between these degrees of freedom is still widely lacking. Here, we use a new generation of carbon nanotube devices with movable ultra-clean single and double quantum dots embedded in a mechanical resonator to demonstrate the tailoring of the interactions between electronic and mechanical degrees of freedom on the nanoscale. Exploiting this tunable coupling, we directly image the spatial structure of phonon modes and probe their parity in real space. Most interestingly, we demonstrate selective coupling between individual mechanical modes and internal electronic degrees of freedom. Our results open new vistas for engineering bulk quantum phenomena in a controlled nanoscale setting and offer important new tools for entangling the electronic and mechanical degrees of freedom at the quantum level.
 Physics , 2015, Abstract: Alkali-metal (potassium) adsorption on FeSe thin films with thickness from two unit cells (UC) to 4-UC on SrTiO3 grown by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. At appropriate potassium coverage (0.2-0.3 monolayer), the tunneling spectra of the films all exhibit a superconducting-like gap larger than 11 meV (five times the gap value of bulk FeSe), and two distinct features of characteristic phonon modes at 11 meV and 21 meV. The results reveal the critical role of the interface enhanced electron-phonon coupling for possible high temperature superconductivity in the system and is consistent with recent theories. Our study provides compelling evidence for the conventional pairing mechanism for this type of heterostructure superconducting systems.
 Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/82/17003 Abstract: At the (001) interface between the two band-insulators LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, a high-mobility electron gas may appear, which has been the object of numerous works over the last four years. Its origin is a subject of debate between the interface polarity and unintended doping. Here we use electron energy loss 'spectrum images', recorded in cross-section in a scanning transmission electron microscope, to analyse the Ti3+ ratio, characteristic of extra electrons. We find an interface concentration of Ti3+ that depends on growth conditions.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.1.051002 Abstract: We report the existence of confined electronic states at the (110) and (111) surfaces of SrTiO3. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we find that the corresponding Fermi surfaces, subband masses, and orbital ordering are different from the ones at the (001) surface of SrTiO3. This occurs because the crystallographic symmetries of the surface and sub-surface planes, and the electron effective masses along the confinement direction, influence the symmetry of the electronic structure and the orbital ordering of the t2g manifold. Remarkably, our analysis of the data also reveals that the carrier concentration and thickness are similar for all three surface orientations, despite their different polarities. The orientational tuning of the microscopic properties of two-dimensional electron states at the surface of SrTiO3 echoes the tailoring of macroscopic (e.g. transport) properties reported recently in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (110) and (111) interfaces, and is promising for searching new types of 2D electronic states in correlated-electron oxides.
 Physics , 2007, Abstract: We have studied the O 2p valence-band structure of Nb-doped SrTiO3, in which a dilute concentration of electrons are doped into the d0 band insulator, by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements. We found that ARPES spectra at the valence band maxima at the M [k = (pi/a, pi/a, 0)]and R [k = (pi/a, pi/a, pi/a)] points start from ~ 3.3 eV below the Fermi level (EF), consistent with the indirect band gap of 3.3 eV and the EF position at the bottom of the conduction band. The peak position of the ARPES spectra were, however, shifted toward higher binding energies by ~ 500 meV from the 3.3 eV threshold. Because the bands at M and R have pure O 2p character, we attribute this ~ 500 meV shift to strong coupling of the oxygen p hole with optical phonons in analogy with the peak shifts observed for d-electron photoemission spectra in various transition-metal oxides.
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