Abstract:
We apply a functional renormalisation group to systems of four bosonic atoms close to the unitary limit. We work with a local effective action that includes a dynamical trimer field and we use this field to eliminate structures that do not correspond to the Faddeev-Yakubovsky equations. In the physical limit, we find three four-body bound states below the shallowest three-body state. The values of the scattering lengths at which two of these states become bound are in good agreement with exact solutions of the four-body equations and experimental observations. The third state is extremely shallow. During the evolution we find an infinite number of four-body states based on each three-body state which follow a double-exponential pattern in the running scale. None of the four-body states shows any evidence of dependence on a four-body parameter.

Abstract:
This paper is the fourth in a series devoted to the development of a rigorous renormalisation group method for lattice field theories involving boson fields, fermion fields, or both. The third paper in the series presents a perturbative analysis of a supersymmetric field theory which represents the continuous-time weakly self-avoiding walk on $\mathbb{Z}^d$. We now present an analysis of the relevant interaction functional of the supersymmetric field theory, which permits a nonperturbative analysis to be carried out in the critical dimension $d = 4$. The results in this paper include: proof of stability of the interaction, estimates which enable control of Gaussian expectations involving both boson and fermion fields, estimates which bound the errors in the perturbative analysis, and a crucial contraction estimate to handle irrelevant directions in the flow of the renormalisation group. These results are essential for the analysis of the general renormalisation group step in the fifth paper in the series.

Abstract:
We discuss structural aspects of the functional renormalisation group. Flows for a general class of correlation functions are derived, and it is shown how symmetry relations of the underlying theory are lifted to the regularised theory. A simple equation for the flow of these relations is provided. The setting includes general flows in the presence of composite operators and their relation to standard flows, an important example being NPI quantities. We discuss optimisation and derive a functional optimisation criterion. Applications deal with the interrelation between functional flows and the quantum equations of motion, general Dyson-Schwinger equations. We discuss the combined use of these functional equations as well as outlining the construction of practical renormalisation schemes, also valid in the presence of composite operators. Furthermore, the formalism is used to derive various representations of modified symmetry relations in gauge theories, as well as to discuss gauge-invariant flows. We close with the construction and analysis of truncation schemes in view of practical optimisation.

Abstract:
Functional renormalisation group approach is applied to a imbalanced many- fermion system with a short-range attractive force. Composite boson field is introduced to describe the pairing between different flavour fermions. A set of approximate flow equations for the effective couplings is derived and solved. We identify the critical values of mass and particle number density mismatch when the system undergoes a phase transition to a normal state and determine the phase diagram both at unitary regime and nearby.

Abstract:
The formation of bound states involving multiple particles underlies many interesting quantum physical phenomena, such as Efimov physics or superconductivity. In this work we show the existence of an infinite number of such states for some boson impurity models. They describe free bosons coupled to an impurity and include some of the most representative models in quantum optics. We also propose a family of wavefunctions to describe the bound states and verify that it accurately characterizes all parameter regimes by comparing its predictions with exact numerical calculations for a one-dimensional tight-binding Hamiltonian. For that model, we also analyze the nature of the bound states by studying the scaling relations of physical quantities such as the ground state energy and localization length, and find a non-analytical behavior as a function of the coupling strength. Finally, we discuss how to test our theoretical predictions in experimental platforms such as photonic crystal structures and cold atoms in optical lattices.

Abstract:
The Hubbard model with finite on-site repulsion U is studied via the functional-integral formulation of the four-slave-boson approach by Kotliar and Ruckenstein. It is shown that a correct treatment of the continuum imaginary time limit (which is required by the very definition of the functional integral) modifies the free energy when fluctuation (1/N) corrections beyond mean-field are considered. Our analysis requires us to suitably interpret the Kotliar and Ruckenstein choice for the bosonic hopping operator and to abandon the commonly used normal-ordering prescription, in order to obtain meaningful fluctuation corrections. In this way we recover the exact solution at U=0 not only at the mean-field level but also at the next order in 1/N. In addition, we consider alternative choices for the bosonic hopping operator and test them numerically for a simple two-site model for which the exact solution is readily available for any U. We also discuss how the 1/N expansion can be formally generalized to the four-slave-boson approach, and provide a simplified prescription to obtain the additional terms in the free energy which result at the order 1/N from the correct continuum limit.

Abstract:
I investigate stationary scaling states of Burgers' and Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPE). The path integral representation of the steady state of the stochastic Burgers equation is used in order to investigate the scaling solutions of the system at renormalisation group (RG) fixed points. I employ the functional RG in order to access the non-perturbative regime. I devise an approximation that respects Galilei invariance and is designed to resolve the frequency and momentum dependence of low order correlation functions. I establish a set of RG fixed point equations for inverse propagators with an arbitrary frequency and momentum dependence. In all spatial dimensions they yield a continuum of fixed points as well as an isolated one. These results are fully compatible with the existing literature for $d=1$. For $d\neq1$ however results of the literature focus almost exclusively on irrotational solutions while the solutions that my approximation can capture contain necessarily vorticity and are closer to Navier-Stokes turbulence. Non-equilibrium steady states of ultra-cold Bose gases coupled to external baths of energy and particles such as exciton-polariton condensates are related to Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) dynamics. I postulate that the scaling that we obtain in this context applies as well to far-from-equilibrium quasi-stationary states (non-thermal fixed points) of the closed system described by the GPE. I translate results found in the KPZ literature to their corresponding dual in the ultra-cold Bose gas set-up. I find that this provides a new scaling relation which can be used to analytically identify the classical Kolmogorov -5/3 exponent and its anomalous correction. Moreover I estimate the anomalous correction to the scaling exponent of the compressible part of the kinetic energy spectrum of the Bose gas which is confirmed by numerical simulations of the GPE.

Abstract:
The ground, one- and two-particle states of the (1+1)-dimensional massive sine-Gordon field theory are investigated within the framework of the Gaussian wave-functional approach. We demonstrate that for a certain region of the model-parameter space, the vacuum of the field system is asymmetrical. Furthermore, it is shown that two-particle bound state can exist upon the asymmetric vacuum for a part of the aforementioned region. Besides, for the bosonic equivalent to the massive Schwinger model, the masses of the one boson and two-boson bound states agree with the recent second-order results of a fermion-mass perturbation calculation when the fermion mass is small.

Abstract:
The massive and massless boson bound states in Kerr metric are discussed. It is found that the massless boson cannot be attracted by Kerr black hole to form bound states. In extreme Kerr geometry and large l cases, our results are in agreement with that of deFelic's, but we extend his result to arbitrary l and non-extreme Kerr geometry. For massive bosons, if the bound state conditions are satisfied, it is possible to form bound states in the extreme Kerr metric. Its energy mode, wave functions and bound states conditions are given.

Abstract:
We apply the functional renormalisation group to few-nucleon systems. Our starting point is a local effective action that includes three- and four-nucleon interactions, expressed in terms of nucleon and two-nucleon boson fields. The evolution of the coupling constants in this action is described by a renormalisation group flow. We derive these flow equations both in the limit of exact Wigner SU(4) symmetry and in the realistic case of broken symmetry. In the symmetric limit we find that the renormalisation flow equations decouple, and can be combined into two sets, one of which matches the known results for bosons, and the other result matches the one for fermions with spin degrees only. The equations show universal features in the unitary limit, which is obtained when the two-body scattering length tends to infinity. We calculate the spin-quartet neutron-deuteron scattering length and the deuteron-deuteron scattering lengths in the spin-singlet and quintet channels.