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Production of Gadolinium-loaded Liquid Scintillator for the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment  [PDF]
Wanda Beriguete,Jun Cao,Yayun Ding,Sunej Hans,Karsten M. Heeger,Liangming Hu,Aizhong Huang,Kam-Biu Luk,Igor Nemchenok,Ming Qi,Richard Rosero,Hansheng Sun,Ruiguang Wang,Yifang Wang,Liangjian Wen,Yi Yang,Minfang Yeh,Zhiyong Zhang,Li Zhou
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2014.05.119
Abstract: We report on the production and characterization of liquid scintillators for the detection of electron antineutrinos by the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. One hundred eighty-five tons of gadolinium-loaded (0.1% by mass) liquid scintillator (Gd-LS) and two hundred tons of unloaded liquid scintillator (LS) were successfully produced from a linear-alkylbenzene (LAB) solvent in six months. The scintillator properties, the production and purification systems, and the quality assurance and control (QA/QC) procedures are described.
Development and Mass Production of a Mixture of LAB- and DIN-based Gadolinium-loaded Liquid Scintillator for the NEOS Short-baseline Neutrino Experiment  [PDF]
Ba Ro Kim,Boyoung Han,Eun-ju Jeon,Kyung Kwang Joo,H. J. Kim,Hyunsoo Kim,Jinyu Kim,Yeongduk Kim,Youngju Ko,Jaison Lee,Jooyoung Lee,Moohyun Lee,Kyungju Ma,Yoomin Oh,Hyangkyu Park,Kang-soon Park,Kyungmin Seo,Gwang-Min Seon,Kim Siyeon
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: A new experiment, which is called as NEOS (NEutrino Oscillation at Short baseline), is proposed on the site of Hanbit reactors at Yonggwang, South Korea, to investigate a reactor antineutrino anomaly. A homogeneous NEOS detector having a 1000-L target volume has been constructed and deployed at the tendon gallery ~25 m away from the reactor core. A linear alkylbenzene (LAB) is used as a main base solvent of the NEOS detector. Furthermore, a di-isopropylnaphthalene (DIN) is added to improve the light output and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) ability. The ratio of LAB to DIN is 90:10. PPO (3 g/L) and bis-MSB (30 mg/L) are dissolved to formulate the mixture of LAB- and DIN-based liquid scintillator (LS). Then, ~0.5% gadolinium (Gd) is loaded into the LS by using the solvent-solvent extraction technique. In this paper, we report the characteristics of Gd-loaded LS (GdLS) for the NEOS detector and the handling during mass production.
Large scale Gd-beta-diketonate based organic liquid scintillator production for antineutrino detection  [PDF]
C. Aberle,C. Buck,B. Gramlich,F. X. Hartmann,M. Lindner,S. Sch?nert,U. Schwan,S. Wagner,H. Watanabe
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/7/06/P06008
Abstract: Over the course of several decades, organic liquid scintillators have formed the basis for successful neutrino detectors. Gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillators provide efficient background suppression for electron antineutrino detection at nuclear reactor plants. In the Double Chooz reactor antineutrino experiment, a newly developed beta-diketonate gadolinium-loaded scintillator is utilized for the first time. Its large scale production and characterization are described. A new, light yield matched metal-free companion scintillator is presented. Both organic liquids comprise the target and "Gamma Catcher" of the Double Chooz detectors.
CNO and pep neutrino spectroscopy in Borexino: Measurement of the deep underground production of cosmogenic 11C in organic liquid scintillator  [PDF]
Borexino Collaboration
Statistics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.74.045805
Abstract: Borexino is an experiment for low energy neutrino spectroscopy at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories. It is designed to measure the mono-energetic $^7$Be solar neutrino flux in real time, via neutrino-electron elastic scattering in ultra-pure organic liquid scintillator. Borexino has the potential to also detect neutrinos from the \emph{pep} fusion process and the CNO cycle. For this measurement to be possible, radioactive contamination in the detector must be kept extremely low. Once sufficiently clean conditions are met, the main background source is $^{11}$C, produced in reactions induced by the residual cosmic muon flux on $^{12}$C. In the process, a free neutron is almost always produced. $^{11}$C can be tagged on an event by event basis by looking at the three-fold coincidence with the parent muon track and the subsequent neutron capture on protons. This coincidence method has been implemented on the Borexino Counting Test Facility data. We report on the first event by event identification of \emph{in situ} muon induced $^{11}$C in a large underground scintillator detector. We measure a $^{11}$C production rate of 0.130 $\pm$ 0.026 (stat) $\pm$ 0.014 (syst) day$^{-1}$ ton$^{-1}$, in agreement with predictions from both experimental studies performed with a muon beam on a scintillator target and \emph{ab initio} estimations based on the $^{11}$C producing nuclear reactions.
Rare-earth loaded liquid scintillator (for LENS experiment)  [PDF]
I. R. Barabanov,V. I. Beresnev,V. N. Kornoukhov,E. A. Yanovich,G. T. Zatsepin,N. A. Danilov,G. V. Korpusov,G. V. Kostikova,Y. S. Krylov,V. V. Yakshin
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: Rare-earth (Yb/Gd) complexes with neutral organophosphorus ligands are briefly discussed for their application in liquid scintillation technique. To evaluate the principle feasibility of a high rare-earth loaded scintillator, the ytterbium chloride complexes with tri-isoamylphosphine oxides were synthesized. Relative scintillation efficiency (RSE) for two Yb concentrations (78 and 88 g/L) was measured by means of the internal conversion electron exitation from Cs-137. The results obtained were 50 and 40% respectively.
Track Reconstruction in the NOvA Experiment  [PDF]
N. Raddatz
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: The NuMI Off-Axis v Appearance (NOvA) experiment is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment using a neutrino source created from the NuMI Beamline at Fermilab. The experiment will study the oscillations of muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos using two functionally identical plastic, liquid scintillator filled detectors placed 14 milliradians off-axis to the NuMI beam. Charged current neutrino interactions will be used to observe the neutrino flavor from identification of the final state lepton. Reconstruction of muon charged particle tracks plays an important role in both the short term goals of detector alignment and calibration as well as longer term oscillation analyses through the identification of muon charged current events. A preliminary method of muon track recognition and track fitting based on a Kalman filter is presented.
Scintillator phase of the SNO+ experiment  [PDF]
V. Lozza,for the SNO+ collaboration
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/375/1/042050
Abstract: The SNO+ experiment is the follow up of the SNO experiment, replacing the heavy water volume with about 780 tons of liquid scintillator (LAB) in order to shift the sensitive threshold to lower energy range. The 6000 m.w.e. natural rock shielding, and the use of ultra- clean materials makes the detector suitable for the detection of pep and CNO solar neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, reactor neutrinos and the possible observation of neutrinos from supernovae. Complementing this program, SNO+ will also search for 150Nd (5.6% abundance) neutrinoless double beta decay, loading the liquid scintillator with 0.1% of natural Neodymium. After a review of the general SNO+ setup, the physics of the solar neutrino phase will be presented.
13C(alpha,n)16O background in a liquid scintillator based neutrino experiment  [PDF]
Jie Zhao,Zeyuan Yu,Jianglai Liu,Xiaobo Li,Feihong Zhang,Dongmei Xia
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: Alpha from natural radioactivity may interact with a nucleus and emit a neutron. The reaction introduces background to the liquid scintillator (LS) based neutrino experiments. In the LS detector, alpha comes from 238U, 232Th and 210Po decay chains. For Gadolinium-doped LS (Gd-LS) detector, alpha also comes from 227Ac. The nucleus 13C is a natural component of Carbon which is rich in the LS. The background rate and spectrum should be subtracted carefully from the neutrino candidates. This paper describes the calculation of neutron yield and spectrum with uncertainty estimated. The results are relevant for many existing neutrino experiments and future LS or Gd-LS based experiments.
Measurement of Radiation Damage of Water-based Liquid Scintillator and Liquid Scintillator  [PDF]
Lindsey J. Bignell,Milind V. Diwan,Sunej Hans,David E. Jaffe,Richard Rosero,Steven Vigdor,Brett Viren,Elizabeth Worcester,Minfang Yeh,Chao Zhang
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/10/10/P10027
Abstract: Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of $5\%$ scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of $1.74 \pm 0.55 \%$ and $1.31 \pm 0.59 \%$ after $\approx$ 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Whilst some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical context, a scintillating phantom used for proton therapy treatment plan verification would exhibit a systematic light yield reduction of approximately $0.1\%$ after a year of operation.
Attenuation length measurements of liquid scintillator with LabVIEW and reliability evaluation of the device  [PDF]
L. Gao,BX. Yu,YY. Ding,L. Zhou,LJ. Wen,YG. Xie,ZG. Wang,X. Cai,XL. Sun,J. Fang,Z. Xue,AW. Zhang,QW. Lü,LJ. Sun,YS. Ge,YB. Liu,SL. Niu,T. Hu,J. Cao,JG. Lü
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/1674-1137/37/7/076001
Abstract: The attenuation length measuring device was constructed by using oscilloscope and LabVIEW for signal acquisition and processing. The performance of the device has been tested with a variety of ways, the test results show that the set-up has a good stability and high precision (sigma/mean reached 0.4 percent). Besides, the accuracy of the measurement system will decrease by about 17 percent if a filter is used. The attenuation length of gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator (Gd-LS) was measured as 15.10 plus or minus 0.35 m where Gd-LS was heavily used in Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment. In addition, one method based on the Beer-Lambert law was proposed to investigate the reliability of the measurement device, the R-square reached 0.9995. Moreover, three purification methods for Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) production were compared in the experiment.
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