Abstract:
Using a basic Mach-Zehnder interferometer, we demonstrate experimentally the measurement of the photonic de Broglie wavelength of an entangled photon pair (a biphoton) generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The observed interference manifests the concept of the photonic de Broglie wavelength. The result also provides a proof-of-principle of the quantum lithography that utilizes the reduced interferometric wavelength.

Abstract:
It is shown, for the first time, that the zitterbewegung of photon can appear near the Dirac point in two-dimensional photonic crystal. The superiority of such a phenomenon for photons is that it can be found in different scaling structures with wide frequency regions. It can be observed by measuring the time dependence of the transmission coefficient through photonic crystal slabs. Thus, it is particularly suited for experimentally observing this effect. We have observed such a phenomenon by exact numerical simulations, confirming a long-standing theoretical prediction.

Abstract:
Photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) holds great potential applications in precision metrology. How to obtain a high measurement precision is an important issue to detect the photonic SHE. In this letter, we propose using optimal preselection and postselection in weak measurements to enhance the measurement precision. We find that the maximum weak value and pointer shift can be obtained with an optimal overlap of preselection and postselection states. These findings offer the possibility for improving the precision of weak measurements and thereby have possible applications for accurately characterizing the parameters of nanostructures.

Abstract:
The electromagnetic component waves, comprising together with their generating oscillatory massless charge a material particle, will be Doppler shifted when the charge hence particle is in motion, with a velocity v, as a mere mechanical consequence of the source motion. We illustrate here that two such component waves generated in opposite directions and propagating at speed c between walls in a one-dimensional box, superpose into a traveling beat wave which resembles directly L. de Broglie’s hypothetic phase wave. This phase wave in terms of transmitting the particle mass at the speed v and angular frequency Omega obeying the de Broglie relations, represents a de Broglie wave. The standing-wave function of the de Broglie (phase) wave and its variables for particle dynamics in small geometries are equivalent to the eigen-state solutions to Schroedinger equation of an identical system.

Abstract:
De Broglie waves may be a reflection of a deformation inherent in the path algebra of phase space. On a Riemannian manifold equipped with a suitable 2-form, the product of paths, which is ordinarily their concatenation, can be deformed by multiplication by a scalar weight giving rise to a function on paths. In flat phase space the associated function is periodic with period the de Broglie wave length. The de Broglie description may only be approximate in curved space.

Abstract:
The electromagnetic component waves, comprising together with their generating oscillatory massless charge a material particle, will be Doppler shifted when the charge hence particle is in motion, with a velocity $v$, as a mere mechanical consequence of the source motion. We illustrate here that two such component waves generated in opposite directions and propagating at speed $c$ between walls in a one-dimensional box, superpose into a traveling beat wave of wavelength ${\mit\Lambda}_d$$=(\frac{v}{c}){\mit\Lambda}$ and phase velocity $c^2/v+v$ which resembles directly L. de Broglie's hypothetic phase wave. This phase wave in terms of transporting the particle mass at the speed $v$ and angular frequency ${\mit\Omega}_d=2\pi v /{\mit\Lambda}_d$, with ${\mit\Lambda}_d$ and ${\mit\Omega}_d$ obeying the de Broglie relations, represents a de Broglie wave. The standing-wave function of the de Broglie (phase) wave and its variables for particle dynamics in small geometries are equivalent to the eigen-state solutions to Schr\"odinger equation of an identical system.

Abstract:
We examine the behavior of a Non Gaussian state like NOON state under phase insensitive amplification. We derive analytical result for the density matrix of the NOON state for arbitrary gain of the amplifier. We consider cases of both symmetric and antisymmetric amplification of the two modes of the NOON state. We quantitatively evaluate the loss of entanglement by the amplifier in terms of the logarithmic negativity parameter. We find that NOON states are more robust than their Gaussian counterparts.

Abstract:
Two schemes of projection measurement are realized experimentally to demonstrate the de Broglie wavelength of three photons without the need for a maximally entangled three-photon state (the NOON state). The first scheme is based on the proposal by Wang and Kobayashi (Phys. Rev. A {\bf 71}, 021802) that utilizes a couple of asymmetric beam splitters while the second one applies the general method of NOON state projection measurement to three-photon case. Quantum interference of three photons is responsible for projecting out the unwanted states, leaving only the NOON state contribution in these schemes of projection measurement.

Abstract:
We describe an experimental demonstration of a novel three-photon NOON state generator using a single source of photons based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC). The three-photon number-entangled state is deterministically generated by the detection of a heralding photon. Interference fringes measured with an emulated three-photon absorber reveal the three-photon de Broglie wavelength and exhibit visibility > 70% without background subtraction.