Abstract:
We consider a symplectic extrapolation of the Hubbard model of N fold replicated electrons and solve this model exactly in two special cases, at N=infinity in the bosonic sector and for any N on a dimer of two points. At N=infinity we find a multiplet of collective modes that contains neutral spin fluctuations and charged pair fluctuations that are degenerate with each other at zero doping. Our solution of the symplectic model on a dimer of two points for any N interpolates smoothly between N=1 and N=infinity without any visible discontinuity. These results suggest that the inclusion of charged pairing modes in weakly doped antiferromagnets is essential and that an expansion about the N=infinity limit is appropriate in this context.

Abstract:
Using an effective field theory we describe the low energy bosonic excitations in a three dimensional ultra-cold mixture of spin-1 bosons and spin-1/2 fermions. We establish an interesting fermionic excitation induced generic damping of the usual undamped long wavelength bosonic collective Goldstone modes. Two states with bosons forming either a ferromagnetic or polar superfluid are studied. The linear dispersion of the bosonic Bogoliubov excitations is preserved with a renormalized sound velocity. For the polar superfluid we find both gapless modes (density and spin) are damped, whereas in the ferromagnetic superfluid we find the density (spin) mode is (not) damped. We argue quite generally that this holds for any mixture of bosons and fermions that are coupled through at least a density-density interaction. We discuss the implications of our many-body interaction results for experiments on Bose-Fermi mixtures.

Abstract:
The collective excitations in the Bose-Hubbard model in a trap are studied by means of numerical diagonalization in one dimension. The strength function is calculated for monopole and dipole perturbations, and moments of the strength function are utilized in order to obtain information about the collective behavior under external forces. In the superfluid regime, the spectrum is found to be exhausted by one single frequency, while in systems that contain a Mott insulating plateau several frequencies are excited. An explanation of recent experimental findings in terms of a Mott plateau is suggested.

Abstract:
Momentum resolved inelastic resonant x-ray scattering is used to map the evolution of charge excitations over a large range of energies, momenta and doping levels in the electron doped Mott insulator class Nd$_{2-x}$Ce$_x$CuO$_4$. As the doping induced AFM-SC (antiferromagnetic-superconducting) transition is approached, we observe an anisotropic softening of collective charge modes over a large energy scale along the Gamma to (\pi,\pi)-direction, whereas the modes exhibit broadening ($\sim$ 1 eV) with relatively little softening along Gamma to (\pi,0) with respect to the parent Mott insulator (x=0). Our study indicates a systematic collapse of the gap consistent with the scenario that the system dopes uniformly with electrons even though the softening of the modes involves an unusually large energy scale.

Abstract:
We use hard-sphere generalized hydrodynamic equations to discuss the extended hydrodynamic modes of a binary mixture. The theory presented here is analytic and it provides us with a simple description of the collective excitations of a dense binary mixture at molecular length scales. The behavior we predict is in qualitative agreement with molecular-dynamics results for soft-sphere mixtures. This study provides some insight into the role of compositional disorder in forming glassy configurations.

Abstract:
We derive the effective action describing the long-wavelength low-energy collective modes of quasi-one-dimensional spin-density-wave (SDW) systems, starting from the Hubbard model within weak coupling approximation. The effective action for the spin-wave mode corresponds to an anisotropic non-linear sigma model together with a Berry phase term. We compute the spin stiffness and the spin-wave velocity. We also obtain the effective action for the sliding mode (phason) taking into account the density fluctuations from the outset and in presence of a weak external electromagnetic field. This leads to coupled equations for the phase of the SDW condensate and the charge density fluctuations. We also calculate the conductivity and the density-density correlation function.

Abstract:
The neutron-star inner crust is assumed to be superfluid at relevant temperatures. The contribution of neutron quasiparticles to thermodynamic and transport properties of the crust is therefore strongly suppressed by the pairing gap. Nevertheless, the neutron gas still has low-energy excitations, namely long-wavelength collective modes. We summarize different approaches to describe the collective modes in the crystalline phases of the inner crust and present an improved model for the description of the collective modes in the pasta phases within superfluid hydrodynamics.

Abstract:
Recently, it was shown that strongly correlated metallic fermionic systems [Nature Phys. 3, 168 (2007)] generically display kinks in the dispersion of single fermions without the coupling to collective modes. Here we provide compelling evidence that the physical origin of these kinks are emerging internal collective modes of the fermionic systems. In the Hubbard model under study these modes are identified to be spin fluctuations which are the precursors of the spin excitations in the insulating phase. In spite of their damping the emergent modes give rise to signatures very similar to features of models including coupling to external modes.

Abstract:
The collective modes of striped phases in a quantum Hall system are computed using the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation. Uniform stripe phases are shown to be unstable to the formation of modulations along the stripes, so that within the Hartree-Fock approximation the groundstate is a stripe crystal. Such crystalline states are generically gapped at any finite wavevector; however, in the quantum Hall system the interactions of modulations among different stripes is found to be remarkably weak, leading to an infinite collection of collective modes with immeasurably small gaps. The resulting long wavelength behavior is derivable from an elastic theory for smectic liquid crystals. Collective modes for the phonon branch are computed throughout the Brillouin zone, as are spin wave and magnetoplasmon modes. A soft mode in the phonon spectrum is identified for partial filling factors sufficiently far from 1/2, indicating a second order phase transition. The modes contain several other signatures that should be experimentally observable.

Abstract:
Recently, the nodal line semimetals have attracted considerable interests in condensed matter physics. We show that their distinct band structure can be detected by measuring the collective modes. In particular, we find that the dependence of the plasmon frequency $\omega_p$ on the electron density $n$ follows a $\omega_p \sim n^{1/4}$ law in the long wavelength limit. Our results will be useful in the ongoing search for new candidates of nodal line semimetals.