Abstract:
We investigate properties of an energetic atom propagating through strongly interacting atomic gases. The operator product expansion is used to systematically compute a quasiparticle energy and its scattering rate both in a spin-1/2 Fermi gas and in a spinless Bose gas. Reasonable agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations even at a relatively small momentum k/kF>1.5 indicates that our large-momentum expansions are valid in a wide range of momentum. We also study a differential scattering rate when a probe atom is shot into atomic gases. Because the number density and current density of the target atomic gas contribute to the forward scattering only, its contact density (measure of short-range pair correlation) gives the leading contribution to the backward scattering. Therefore, such an experiment can be used to measure the contact density and thus provides a new local probe of strongly interacting atomic gases.

Abstract:
We develop the idea of manipulating the scattering length $a$ in low-temperature atomic gases by using nearly resonant light. As found, if the incident light is close to resonance with one of the bound $p$ levels of electronically excited molecule, then virtual radiative transitions of a pair of interacting atoms to this level can significantly change the value and even reverse the sign of $a$. The decay of the gas due to photon recoil, resulting from the scattering of light by single atoms, and due to photoassociation can be minimized by selecting the frequency detuning and the Rabi frequency. Our calculations show the feasibility of optical manipulations of trapped Bose condensates through a light-induced change in the mean field interaction between atoms, which is illustrated for $^7$Li.

Abstract:
I review recent studies that predict quantum liquid-crystalline orders in resonant atomic gases. As examples of such putative systems I will discuss an s-wave resonant imbalanced Fermi gas and a p-wave resonant Bose gas. In the former, the liquid-crystalline smectic, nematic and rich variety of other descendant states emerge from strongly quantum- and thermally- fluctuating Fulde-Ferrell and Larkin-Ovchinnikov states, driven by a competition between resonant pairing and Fermi-surface mismatch. In the latter, at intermediate detuning the p-wave resonant interaction generically drives Bose-condensation at a finite momentum, set by a competition between atomic kinetic energy and atom-molecule hybridization. Because of the underlying rotationally-invariant environment of the atomic gas trapped isotropically, the putative striped superfluid is a realization of a quantum superfluid smectic, that can melt into a variety of interesting phases, such as a quantum nematic. I will discuss the corresponding rich phase diagrams and transitions, as well the low-energy properties of the phases and fractional topological defects generic to striped superfluids and their fluctuation-driven descendants.

Abstract:
We consider the normal phase of a strongly interacting Fermi gas, which can have either an equal or an unequal number of atoms in its two accessible spin states. Due to the unitarity-limited attractive interaction between particles with different spin, noncondensed Cooper pairs are formed. The starting point in treating preformed pairs is the Nozi\`{e}res-Schmitt-Rink (NSR) theory, which approximates the pairs as being noninteracting. Here, we consider the effects of the interactions between the Cooper pairs in a Wilsonian renormalization-group scheme. Starting from the exact bosonic action for the pairs, we calculate the Cooper-pair self-energy by combining the NSR formalism with the Wilsonian approach. We compare our findings with the recent experiments by Harikoshi {\it et al.} [Science {\bf 327}, 442 (2010)] and Nascimb\`{e}ne {\it et al.} [Nature {\bf 463}, 1057 (2010)], and find very good agreement. We also make predictions for the population-imbalanced case, that can be tested in experiments.

Abstract:
We systematically develop the full quantum theory for the electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT) and slow light properties in ultracold Bose and Fermi gases. It shows a very different property from the classical theory which assumes frozen atomic motion. For example, the speed of light inside the atomic gases can be changed dramatically near the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature, while the presence of the Fermi sea can destroy the EIT effect even at zero temperature. From experimental point of view, such quantum EIT property is mostly manifested in the counter-propagating excitation schemes in either the low-lying Rydberg transition with a narrow line width or in the D2 transitions with a very weak coupling field. We further investigate the interaction effects on the EIT for a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate, showing an inhomogeneous broadening of the EIT profile and nontrivial change of the light speed due to the quantum many-body effects beyond mean field energy shifts.

Abstract:
Fermionic superfluidity in atomic Fermi gases across a Feshbach resonance is normally described by the atom-molecule theory, which treats the closed channel as a noninteracting point boson. In this work we present a theoretical description of the resonant superfluidity in analogy to the two-band superconductors. We employ the underlying two-channel scattering model of Feshbach resonance where the closed channel is treated as a composite boson with binding energy $\varepsilon_0$ and the resonance is triggered by the microscopic interchannel coupling $U_{12}$. The binding energy $\varepsilon_0$ naturally serves as an energy scale of the system, which has been sent to infinity in the atom-molecule theory. We show that the atom-molecule theory can be viewed as a leading-order low-energy effective theory of the underlying fermionic theory in the limit $\varepsilon_0\rightarrow\infty$ and $U_{12}\rightarrow0$, while keeping the phenomenological atom-molecule coupling finite. The resulting two-band description of the superfluid state is in analogy to the BCS theory of two-band superconductors. In the dilute limit $\varepsilon_0\rightarrow\infty$, the two-band description recovers precisely the atom-molecule theory. The two-band theory provides a natural approach to study the corrections because of a finite binding energy $\varepsilon_0$ in realistic experimental systems. For broad and moderate resonances, the correction is not important for current experimental densities. However, for extremely narrow resonance, we find that the correction becomes significant. The finite binding energy correction could be important for the stability of homogeneous polarized superfluid against phase separation in imbalanced Fermi gases across a narrow Feshbach resonance.

Abstract:
We examine pairing and molecule formation in strongly-interacting Fermi gases, and we discuss how radio-frequency (RF) spectroscopy can reveal these features. For the balanced case, the emergence of stable molecules in the BEC regime results in a two-peak structure in the RF spectrum with clearly visible medium effects on the low-energy part of the molecular wavefunction. For the highly-imbalanced case, we show the existence of a well-defined quasiparticle (a spin polaron) on both sides of the Feshbach resonance, we evaluate its lifetime, and we illustrate how its energy may be measured by RF spectroscopy.

Abstract:
Atom-molecule equilibrium for molecular formation processes is discussed for boson-fermion, fermion-fermion, and boson-boson mixtures of ultracold atomic gases in the framework of quasichemical equilibrium theory. After presentation of the general formulation, zero-temperature phase diagrams of the atom-molecule equilibrium states are calculated analytically; molecular, mixed, and dissociated phases are shown to appear for the change of the binding energy of the molecules. The temperature dependences of the atom or molecule densities are calculated numerically, and finite-temperature phase structures are obtained of the atom-molecule equilibrium in the mixtures. The transition temperatures of the atom or molecule Bose-Einstein condensations are also evaluated from these results. Quantum-statistical deviations of the law of mass action in atom-molecule equilibrium, which should be satisfied in mixtures of classical Maxwell-Boltzmann gases, are calculated, and the difference in the different types of quantum-statistical effects is clarified. Mean-field calculations with interparticle interactions (atom-atom, atom-molecule, and molecule-molecule) are formulated, where interaction effects are found to give the linear density-dependent term in the effective molecular binding energies. This method is applied to calculations of zero-temperature phase diagrams, where new phases with coexisting local-equilibrium states are shown to appear in the case of strongly repulsive interactions.

Abstract:
We present a general form of the effective spin-chain model for strongly interacting atomic gases with an arbitrary spin in the one-dimensional(1D) traps. In particular, for high-spin systems the atoms can collide in multiple scattering channels, and we find that the resulted form of spin-chain model generically follows the same structure as that of the interaction potentials. This is a unified form working for any spin, statistics (Bose or Fermi) and confinement potentials. We adopt the spin-chain model to reveal both the ferromagnetic(FM) and anti-ferromagnetic(AFM) magnetic orders for strongly interacting spin-1 bosons in 1D traps. We further show that by adding the spin-orbit coupling, the FM/AFM orders can be gradually destroyed and eventually the ground state exhibits universal spin structure and contacts that are independent of the strength of spin-orbit coupling.

Abstract:
We present a detailed analysis of the two-channel atom-molecule effective Hamiltonian for an ultracold two-component homogeneous Fermi gas interacting near a Feshbach resonance. We particularly focus on the two-body and many-body properties of the dressed molecules in such a gas. An exact result for the many-body T-matrix of the two-channel theory is derived by both considering coupled vertex equations and the functional integral methods. The field theory incorporates exactly the two-body physics of the Feshbach scattering by means of simple analytical formulas without any fitting parameters. New interesting many-body effects are discussed in the case of narrow resonances. We give also a description of the BEC-BCS crossover above and below T_C. The effects of different approximations for the selfenergy of the dressed molecules are discussed. The single-channel results are derived as a special limit for broad resonances. Moreover, through an analytic analysis of the BEC limit, the relation between the composite boson of the single-channel model and the dressed-molecule of the two-channel model is established.