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Involvement of the Cerebral Monoamine Neurotransmitters System in Antidepressant-Like Effects of a Chinese Herbal Decoction, Baihe Dihuang Tang, in Mice Model
Meng-Li Chen,Jie Gao,Xin-Rong He,Qian Chen
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/419257
Abstract: Baihe Dihuang Tang (BDT) is a renowned Chinese herbal formula which is commonly used for treating patients with mental instability, absentmindedness, insomnia, deficient dysphoria, and other psychological diseases. These major symptoms closely associated with the depressive disorders. BDT was widely popular use for treating emotion-thought disorders for many years in China. In the present study, the antidepressant-like effect of BDT in mice was investigated by using the forced swim test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST). The underlying mechanism was explored by determining the effect of BDT on the level of cerebral monoamine neurotransmitters. BDT (9 and 18 g/kg, p.o. for 14 days) administration significantly reduced the immobility time in both the FST and the TST without changing locomotion in the open field-test (OFT). Moreover, BDT treatment at the dose of 18 g/kg inhibited reserpine-induced ptosis. Meanwhile, BDT enhanced 5-HT and NA levels in mouse cerebrum as well as decreased the ratio of 5-HT compared to its metabolite, 5-HIAA, (turnover, 5-HIAA/5-HT) after TST. The results demonstrated that the antidepressant-like effect of BDT is mediated, at least partially, via the central monoaminergic neurotransmitter system.
Neurotransmitter CART as a New Therapeutic Candidate for Parkinson’s Disease  [PDF]
Peizhong Mao,Charles K. Meshul,Philippe Thuillier,P. Hemachandra Reddy
Pharmaceuticals , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ph6010108
Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. To date, there is no effective treatment that halts its progression. Increasing evidence indicates that mitochondria play an important role in the development of PD. Hence mitochondria-targeted approaches or agents may have therapeutic promise for treatment of the disease. Neuropeptide CART (cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript), a hypothalamus and midbrain enriched neurotransmitter with an antioxidant property, can be found in mitochondria, which is the main source of reactive oxygen species. Systemic administration of CART has been found to ameliorate dopaminergic neuronal loss and improve motor functions in a mouse model of PD. In this article, we summarize recent progress in studies investigating the relationship between CART, dopamine, and the pathophysiology of PD, with a focus on mitochondria-related topics.
Affective Disorders and Antidepressant Drugs
Marc Fakhoury
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100597
Abstract: Affective disorders are a group of psychiatric diseases that can affect an individual at any given age. Also called mood disorders, they can be distinguished into two different types: major depressive disorder, also called major depression, and bipolar disorder, which is known as manic depression. People affected by major depression most often have a low mood, and are consistently in a state of unhappiness. Although it was shown that genetics play a role in the predisposition of depression, this disease most often occurs in response to a variety of external factors such as a stressful life event, the loss of a loved one, and following drug or substance abuse. A variety of antidepressant drugs, such as the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and the second-generation antidepressants are able to provide significant relief for people suffering from affective disorders like depression. However, several of these pharma- ceutical agents can cause serious side effects to the patients. Therefore, there is a need to identify novel antidepressant therapies that are more efficient and that present minimal side effects. A better understanding of the neurobiology of depression will definitively help scientists develop new therapeutic ideas. This paper will first discuss the clinical profile of depression and explain the physiological mechanisms and the neurochemistry involved in this disease. It will then give you an overview of the effectiveness of the most common antidepressants used, with a description of their mode of action and most notable side effects.
Nutritional therapies for mental disorders
Shaheen E Lakhan, Karen F Vieira
Nutrition Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-7-2
Abstract: Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such noncompliant patients who have mental disorders are at a higher risk for committing suicide or being institutionalized. One way for psychiatrists to overcome this noncompliance is to educate themselves about alternative or complementary nutritional treatments. Although in the cases of certain nutrients, further research needs to be done to determine the best recommended doses of most nutritional supplements, psychiatrists can recommend doses of dietary supplements based on previous and current efficacious studies and then adjust the doses based on the results obtained.Currently, approximately 1 in 4 adult Americans have been diagnosed with a mental disorder, which translates into about 58 million affected people [1]. Though the incidence of mental disorders is higher in America than in other countries, a World Health Organization study of 14 countries reported a worldwide prevalence of mental disorders between 4.3 percent and 26.4 percent [2]. In addition, mental disorders are among the leading causes for disability in the US as well as other countries. Common mental health disorders include mood disorders, anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), and autism. However, the four most common mental disorders that cause disabilities are major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) [3,4].Typically, most of these disorders are treated with prescription drugs, but many of these prescribed drugs cause unwanted side effects. For example, lithium is usually prescribed for bipolar disorder, but the high-doses of lithium that are normally prescribed causes side effects that include: a dulled personality, reduced emotions, memory loss, tremors, or weigh
Common Mental Disorders  [PDF]
A Risal
Kathmandu University Medical Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/kumj.v9i3.6308
Abstract: Common mental disorders are a group of distress states manifesting with anxiety, depressive and unexplained somatic symptoms typically encountered in community and primary care settings. Risk factors for these disorders are mainly lower socio-economic status, psychological illnesses, poor reproductive health, gender disadvantage and physical ill-health. WHO has recommended that treatment of all these disorders should be based in primary care to be more effective and accessible to all the community people. The structure of mental health care in primary care is generally understood in terms of the “pathways to care” model and it plays a major role in countries like ours where community-based mental health services do not exist. Both the psychological and pharmacological therapies are found to be equally effective for treating these disorders. Integration of mental health into primary care can be considered as the stepping stone in the way forward to tackle the barriers and problems in effective management of common mental disorders in the community. The acute shortage of mental health professionals and the relatively low levels of awareness about mental disorders make it mandatory that primary health care should remain the single largest sector for mental health care in low and middle income countries like ours. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/kumj.v9i3.6308 Kathmandu Univ Med J 2011;9(3):213-7 ? ?
GABAA receptors as novel drug targets for treatment of mental disorders  [cached]
Abolghasem Esmaeili,Kamran Ghaedi
Journal of Paramedical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: A balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmissions in brain is an essential factor for the proper function of the brain. The amino acid gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) is considered as the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain. Thus, GABAergic neurons play a key role in regulating behavior. Previous data have revealed the complex subunit structural design for GABAA receptor channel, in which a pentameric assembly resulting from 5 of at least 21 subunits, grouped in the eight classes alpha (α1-6), beta (β1-4), gamma (γ1-4), delta, pi (π), epsilon (ε), theta (θ) and rho (ρ1-3) permits an immense number of putative receptor isoforms. GABAARs are highly diversed in the central nervous system in which this diversity may be related to some mental disorders. Any alteration in expression of the GABAA receptor genes causes neurophysiological and functional consequences that might be associated with neurological disorders. Some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety, epilepsy and sleep disorders, are effectively treated with therapeutic agents that act on the GABAA receptor. In this article, the contribution of GABAA receptor deficits to central nervous system disorders, in particular anxiety disorders, epilepsy, schizophrenia and insomnia, will be reviewed. The better understanding of GABA and its receptors may help us to find novel therapeutic agents for treatment of mental disorder in future research.
Functional Role of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis as a Therapeutic Strategy for Mental Disorders  [PDF]
Heechul Jun,Syed Mohammed Qasim Hussaini,Michael J. Rigby,Mi-Hyeon Jang
Neural Plasticity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/854285
Abstract: Adult neurogenesis, the process of generating new neurons from neural stem cells, plays significant roles in synaptic plasticity, memory, and mood regulation. In the mammalian brain, it continues to occur well into adulthood in discrete regions, namely, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its role in the etiology of mental disorders. In addition, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly correlated with the remission of the antidepressant effect. In this paper, we discuss three major psychiatric disorders, depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction, in light of preclinical evidence used in establishing the neurobiological significance of adult neurogenesis. We interpret the significance of these results and pose questions that remain unanswered. Potential treatments which include electroconvulsive therapy, deep brain stimulation, chemical antidepressants, and exercise therapy are discussed. While consensus lacks on specific mechanisms, we highlight evidence which indicates that these treatments may function via an increase in neural progenitor proliferation and changes to the hippocampal circuitry. Establishing a significant role of adult neurogenesis in the pathogenicity of psychiatric disorders may hold the key to potential strategies toward effective treatment. 1. Introduction Mental disorders are debilitating conditions that significantly impair the function of the central nervous system and degrade the quality of life. About one-quarter of adult Americans are diagnosed with mental disorders such as major depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia [1]. Understanding the neurobiological basis of mental disorders, determining effective treatments, and alleviating the respective symptoms are major forces driving modern psychiatry today. The hippocampus, an area of the brain important in memory, cognitive function, and mood regulation, is particularly vulnerable to chronic stress and mental disorders [2, 3]. Several landmark clinical studies have demonstrated that major depression is accompanied by a decrease in the volume of hippocampus and consequent deficits in hippocampal function [4, 5]. Similarly, in schizophrenic patients, shape deformations, cell loss, and volume reduction in the hippocampus were found using neuroimaging analysis [6–8]. Reversal of these alterations has successfully improved the behavioral and cognitive symptoms associated with these disorders. Such evidence has encouraged consideration of
Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Depressive Disorders, and Antidepressant Therapy  [PDF]
Eleni Paizanis,Michel Hamon,Laurence Lanfumey
Neural Plasticity , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/73754
Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that neural stem cells reside in the adult central nervous system where neurogenesis occurs throughout lifespan. Neurogenesis concerns mainly two areas in the brain: the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus and the subventricular zone, where it is controlled by several trophic factors and neuroactive molecules. Neurogenesis is involved in processes such as learning and memory and accumulating evidence implicates hippocampal neurogenesis in the physiopathology of depression. We herein review experimental and clinical data demonstrating that stress and antidepressant treatments affect neurogenesis in opposite direction in rodents. In particular, the stimulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by all types of antidepressant drugs supports the view that neuroplastic phenomena are involved in the physiopathology of depression and underlie—at least partly—antidepressant therapy.
Development of the sociology of mental disorders: An overview  [PDF]
Opali? Petar
Sociologija , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/soc0701001o
Abstract: In the introduction the social character of mental disorders is discussed. In the second part the contribution of individual authors and their works to the development of sociology of mental disorders in European countries and the USA is described, with special emphasis on the sociogenesis of mental disorders. There follows an overview of the theories of Comte, Durkheim Halbwachs, Meyer and Eliot, Goffman, Parsons, Foucault, as well as representatives of anti-psychiatry (Laing, Basaglia and Szasz) and Freudo-Marxists (Reich, Fromm etc), to contemporary authors of relevant textbooks (Gallagher, Eaton, Cocherham etc). The study of the sociology of mental disorders in Serbia is briefly sketched.
Antidepressant Prescribing Patterns for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders in a Singapore Hospital  [PDF]
Teck Hwee Soh, Leslie Lim, Herng Nieng Chan, Yiong Huak Chan
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.52016
Abstract: Objective: Although antidepressants are the recommended first-line pharmacological treatments for depressive and anxiety disorders, their prescribing patterns have not been studied in Singapore. We investigate antidepressant prescription patterns for outpatients with depressive and anxiety disorders in a general hospital in Singapore. We hypothesize that intolerance to side effects and lack of efficacy may contribute to medication switching, and that initiation of antidepressant therapy is not easily tolerated. Methods: A retrospective review of the casenotes of outpatients was carried out between January 2013 and December 2013. A total of 206 patients were randomly selected. The study was approved by the hospital’s institutional review board. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 18. Results: There were more females than males (ratio 1.7:1) with a mean age of 50.6 ± 15.2 years. Depressive disorder, comprising 50% of the sample, was the most frequent diagnosis followed by anxiety disorder (27.2%), mixed anxiety-depression (16%) and adjustment disorder (5.8%). Almost all patients (97.1%) were prescribed antidepressants, the most common being selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) (75.5%), followed by the noradrenaline and specific serotonin antidepressant (NaSSA) (13.5%) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) (8.5%). Patients prescribed SSRIs tended to be younger and better educated (p = 0.0005). More than half of the patients (52.1%) required antidepressant switching mainly due to lack of efficacy and intolerance of side effects. Combination therapy was prescribed for 17% of patients with SSRI-NaSSA, the most preferred combination. Nearly a quarter (23.8%) patients required augmentation therapy with atypical antipsychotics. Combination (p = 0.024) and augmentation (p = 0.033) were utilized more often for depression than for anxiety disorders. Conclusion: Antidepressant medications are commonly prescribed for depression and anxiety disorders. The main reasons for switching antidepressants were intolerance and lack of efficacy. That about half of the patients reported side effects necessitating medication change confirmed our hypothesis that antidepressant therapy was not easy to initiate. This has important implications for treatment adherence and outcome.
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