Abstract:
We construct entanglement witnesses with regard to the geometric structure of the Hilbert--Schmidt space and investigate the geometry of entanglement. In particular, for a two--parameter family of two--qutrit states that are part of the magic simplex we calculate the Hilbert--Schmidt measure of entanglement. We present a method to detect bound entanglement which is illustrated for a three--parameter family of states. In this way we discover new regions of bound entangled states. Furthermore we outline how to use our method to distinguish entangled from separable states.

Abstract:
A given dynamics for a composite quantum system can exhibit several distinct properties for the asymptotic entanglement behavior, like entanglement sudden death, asymptotic death of entanglement, sudden birth of entanglement, etc. A classification of the possible situations was given in [M. O. Terra Cunha, {\emph{New J. Phys}} {\bf{9}}, 237 (2007)] but for some classes there were no known examples. In this work we give a better classification for the possibile relaxing dynamics at the light of the geometry of their set of asymptotic states and give explicit examples for all the classes. Although the classification is completely general, in the search of examples it is sufficient to use two qubits with dynamics given by differential equations in Lindblad form (some of them non-autonomous). We also investigate, in each case, the probabilities to find each possible behavior for random initial states.

Abstract:
Let $H^{[ N]}=H^{[ d_{1}]}\otimes ... \otimes H^{[ d_{n}]}$ be a tensor product of Hilbert spaces and let $\tau_{0}$ be the closest separable state in the Hilbert-Schmidt norm to an entangled state $\rho_{0}$. Let $\tilde{\tau}_{0}$ denote the closest separable state to $\rho_{0}$ along the line segment from $I/N$ to $\rho_{0}$ where $I$ is the identity matrix. Following [pitrubmat] a witness $W_{0}$ detecting the entanglement of $\rho_{0}$ can be constructed in terms of $I, \tau_{0}$ and $\tilde{\tau}_{0}$. If representations of $\tau_{0}$ and $\tilde{\tau}_{0}$ as convex combinations of separable projections are known, then the entanglement of $\rho_{0}$ can be detected by local measurements. G\"{u}hne \textit{et. al.} in [bruss1] obtain the minimum number of measurement settings required for a class of two qubit states. We use our geometric approach to generalize their result to the corresponding two qudit case when $d$ is prime and obtain the minimum number of measurement settings. In those particular bipartite cases, $\tau_{0}=\tilde{\tau}_{0}$. We illustrate our general approach with a two parameter family of three qubit bound entangled states for which $\tau_{0} \neq \tilde{\tau}_{0}$ and we show our approach works for $n$ qubits. In [pitt] we elaborated on the role of a ``far face'' of the separable states relative to a bound entangled state $\rho_{0}$ constructed from an orthogonal unextendible product base. In this paper the geometric approach leads to an entanglement witness expressible in terms of a constant times $I$ and a separable density $\mu_{0}$ on the far face from $\rho_{0}$. Up to a normalization this coincides with the witness obtained in [bruss1] for the particular example analyzed there.

Abstract:
We present a broad class of states which are diagonal in the basis of N-qubit GHZ states such that non-positivity under the partial transpose operation is necessary and sufficient for the presence of entanglement. This class includes many naturally arising instances such as dephased or depolarised GHZ states. Furthermore, our proof directly leads to an entanglement witness which saturates this bound. The witness is applied to thermal GHZ states to prove that the entanglement can be extremely robust to system imperfections.

Abstract:
Invariant operator-valued tensor fields on Lie groups are considered. These define classical tensor fields on Lie groups by evaluating them on a quantum state. This particular construction, applied on the local unitary group U(n)xU(n), may establish a method for the identification of entanglement monotone candidates by deriving invariant functions from tensors being by construction invariant under local unitary transformations. In particular, for n=2, we recover the purity and a concurrence related function (Wootters 1998) as a sum of inner products of symmetric and anti-symmetric parts of the considered tensor fields. Moreover, we identify a distinguished entanglement monotone candidate by using a non-linear realization of the Lie algebra of SU(2)xSU(2). The functional dependence between the latter quantity and the concurrence is illustrated for a subclass of mixed states parametrized by two variables.

Abstract:
The geometrical description of a Hilbert space asociated with a quantum system considers a Hermitian tensor to describe the scalar inner product of vectors which are now described by vector fields. The real part of this tensor represents a flat Riemannian metric tensor while the imaginary part represents a symplectic two-form. The immersion of classical manifolds in the complex projective space associated with the Hilbert space allows to pull-back tensor fields related to previous ones, via the immersion map. This makes available, on these selected manifolds of states, methods of usual Riemannian and symplectic geometry. Here we consider these pulled-back tensor fields when the immersed submanifold contains separable states or entangled states. Geometrical tensors are shown to encode some properties of these states. These results are not unrelated with criteria already available in the literature. We explicitly deal with some of these relations.

Abstract:
Various problems concerning the geometry of the space $u^*(\cH)$ of Hermitian operators on a Hilbert space $\cH$ are addressed. In particular, we study the canonical Poisson and Riemann-Jordan tensors and the corresponding foliations into K\"ahler submanifolds. It is also shown that the space $\cD(\cH)$ of density states on an $n$-dimensional Hilbert space $\cH$ is naturally a manifold stratified space with the stratification induced by the the rank of the state. Thus the space $\cD^k(\cH)$ of rank-$k$ states, $k=1,...,n$, is a smooth manifold of (real) dimension $2nk-k^2-1$ and this stratification is maximal in the sense that every smooth curve in $\cD(\cH)$, viewed as a subset of the dual $u^*(\cH)$ to the Lie algebra of the unitary group $U(\cH)$, at every point must be tangent to the strata $\cD^k(\cH)$ it crosses. For a quantum composite system, i.e. for a Hilbert space decomposition $\cH=\cH^1\ot\cH^2$, an abstract criterion of entanglement is proved.

Abstract:
We present methods for detecting entanglement around symmetric Dicke states. In particular, we consider N-qubit symmetric Dicke states with N/2 excitations. In the first part of the paper we show that for large N these states have the smallest overlap possible with states without genuine multi-partite entanglement. Thus these states are particulary well suited for the experimental examination of multi-partite entanglement. We present fidelity-based entanglement witness operators for detecting multipartite entanglement around these states. In the second part of the paper we consider entanglement criteria, somewhat similar to the spin squeezing criterion, based on the moments or variances of the collective spin operators. Surprisingly, these criteria are based on an upper bound for variances for separable states. We present both criteria detecting entanglement in general and criteria detecting only genuine multi-partite entanglement. The collective operator measured for our criteria is an important physical quantity: Its expectation value essentially gives the intensity of the radiation when a coherent atomic cloud emits light.

Abstract:
A short review of Algebraic Geometry tools for the decomposition of tensors and polynomials is given from the point of view of applications to quantum and atomic physics. Examples of application to assemblies of indistinguishable two-level bosonic atoms are discussed using modern formulations of the classical Sylvester's algorithm for the decomposition of homogeneous polynomials in two variables. In particular, the symmetric rank and symmetric border rank of spin squeezed states is calculated as well as their Schr\"odinger-cat-like decomposition as the sum of macroscopically different coherent spin states; Fock states provide an example of states for which the symmetric rank and the symmetric border rank are different.

Abstract:
We investigate the evolution of quantum correlations over the lifetime of a multi-photon state. Measurements reveal time-dependent oscillations of the entanglement fidelity for photon pairs created by a single semiconductor quantum dot. The oscillations are attributed to the phase acquired in the intermediate, non-degenerate, exciton-photon state and are consistent with simulations. We conclude that emission of photon pairs by a typical quantum dot with finite polarisation splitting is in fact entangled in a time-evolving state, and not classically correlated as previously regarded.